nandi's blog

After An Asteroid Wiped Out The Dinosaurs, Ocean Microbes Helped Life Rebound

Wednesday, September 16, 2020

A 2016 algal bloom off California’s coast. Similar blooms may have helped life recover after the dinosaur-killing asteroid impact. NASA/GODDARD/SUOMIN-NPP/VIIRS (CC-BY)

Never underestimate pond scum. The asteroid impact that killed most of the dinosaurs 66 million years ago also created conditions for ocean microbes to flourish, according to a new study. In microscopic rock crystals, researchers have found evidence that massive blooms of algae and photosynthetic bacteria covered the world’s oceans, providing food for larger marine creatures soon after the cataclysm.

In 2016, researchers working in the Gulf of Mexico drilled into the Chicxulub crater, the scar left behind by the asteroid impact, buried under the sea floor. They found that sediments deposited immediately after the impact were rich in micrite, a calcium carbonate mineral. Calcium carbonate, common in limestone, precipitates in the world’s oceans: Corals and plankton build skeletons of it, microbes such as bacteria produce it, and it can even form directly from seawater.

The discovery was a déjà vu moment for Timothy Bralower, a marine geologist at Pennsylvania State University, University Park. In 2001, Bralower and his colleagues had spotted micrite in rocks from the western Pacific Ocean that dated to the time of the impact. “When we saw this micrite layer in the crater, we went ‘bingo,’” Bralower says. “We’ve seen this before.”

In fact, rocks collected from 31 sites around the world contain a layer of micrite that’s 66 million years old, Bralower realized when he pored over his extensive collection of rock samples mounted on microscope slides. “We see it all over the oceans,” he says.

To understand how the micrite formed, Bralower and his colleagues zoomed in on the minerals using electron microscopes. They found that its crystals were often composed of even smaller microcrystals shaped like six-sided rhombohedra or scalenohedra with more than eight sides. Previous researchers didn’t see these structures because they weren’t zooming in enough, Bralower says. “People have looked at it before, but not with enough magnification.”

The microcrystals are remarkably similar to the calcium carbonate produced by modern-day bacteria, and so most of the micrite is likely biological in origin, Bralower and his colleagues report in Earth and Planetary Science Letters. The life that created this micrite was probably part a “survivor microbial community” that emerged in the aftermath of the impact, the researchers suggest.

In addition to wiping out so much life on land, the impact decimated ocean ecosystems as well. Vaporized rock led to a buildup of sulfuric acid that rained down on oceans along with toxic metals like lead and mercury. More than 90% of marine phytoplankton went extinct, researchers have shown.

Yet that destruction also paved the way for newcomers, says Julio Sepúlveda, a biogeochemist at the University of Colorado, Boulder, who was not involved in the research. “If you wipe out an important group from an ecosystem, you have an empty ecological niche.”

Those newcomers, other algae and photosynthetic bacteria, were “ready to take over the world,” Bralower says. As they proliferated in oceanwide blooms, they would have acted as a food source themselves for animals higher up the food chain like krill and shrimp, Bralower and his colleagues propose. And they left behind evidence of their existence in the form of micrite.

It’s worth digging further into the past to scan for similar blooms after other mass extinctions, the researchers suggest. Looking at the Permian extinction 252 million years ago, a whopper that killed off more than 90% of the planet’s species, would be a good place to start, Bralower says. “I bet you if you looked at the end Permian you’d find these structures there as well.”


The Oldest Known Sperm Cells

Thursday, September 17, 2020

Header Image Credit : Dinghua Yang

In another fascinating snapshot from deep time, an international team of paleontologists has reported the discovery of specimens of a minuscule crustacean that dates back to the Cretaceous (about 100 million years ago), conserved in samples of amber from Myanmar. The most spectacular find is a single female, which turns out on closer examination to contain giant sperm cells in its reproductive tract. In fact, this is the oldest fossil in which sperm cells have been conclusively identified. Moreover, the specimen represents a previously unknown species of crustacean, which has been named Myanmarcypris hui. M. hui was an ostracod, as clearly indicated by the paired calcareous valves that form the carapace, whose form recalls that of a mussel shell. Ostracods have been around for 500 million years, and thousands of modern species have been described. They are found in the oceans and in freshwater lakes and rivers. Fossilized shells of these crustaceans are by no means rare, but the specimens preserved in Burmese amber reveal details of their internal organs, including those involved in reproduction. "The finds gave us an extremely rare opportunity to learn more about the evolution of these organs," says Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich geobiologist Renate Matzke-Karasz, who played a major role in the morphological analysis of the fossils. 

During the Cretaceous period, ostracods must have lived in the coastal and inland waters of what is now Myanmar, which were fringed by forests dominated by trees that produced huge quantities of resin. The newly described specimens are among the many organisms that were trapped in the oozing blobs of the gooey substance. In recent years, the amber found in the province of Kachin has yielded a spectacular trove of fossils, including frogs and snakes, as well as part of a putative dinosaur (according to new evidence, that specimen may actually represent an unusual lizard). Over the past 5 years, hundreds of previously unknown species have been described based on these inclusions. Indeed, many of them have forced evolutionary biologists to reconsider conventional hypotheses concerning phylogenetic and ecological relationships. 

The new ostracod specimens were analyzed with the aid of computer-assisted 3D X-ray reconstructions. The images revealed astonishing details of the anatomy of these animals, ranging from their tiny limbs to their reproductive organs. - And in one female specimen, Matzke-Karasz and her colleagues discovered ripe sperm. The cells were discovered in the paired sperm receptacles in which they were stored after copulation, ready for release when the female's eggs matured. "This female must have mated shortly before being encased in the resin," says He Wang of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Nanjing. The X-ray images also revealed the sperm pumps and the pair of penises that male ostracods insert into the twin gonopores of the females.

The finds in Burmese amber provide unprecedented insights into an unexpectedly ancient and advanced instance of evolutionary specialization. "The complexity of the reproductive system in these specimens raises the question of whether the investment in giant sperm cells might represent an evolutionarily stable strategy, says Matzke-Karasz. The males of most animal species (including humans) produce very large numbers of very small sperm. Comparatively few animals, including some fruit flies - and of course, ostracods - have opted for a different approach. They make a relatively small numbers of oversized sperm, whose motile tails are several times longer than the animal itself. 

"In order to prove that the use of giant sperm is not an extravagant whim on the part of evolution, but a viable strategy that can confer an enduring advantage that enables species to survive for long periods of time, we must establish when this mode of reproduction first appeared," says Matzke-Karasz. Examples of fossilized sperm cells are extremely rare. The oldest known ostracod sperm (prior to the new discovery) are 17 million years old, and the previous record age, 50 Myr, was held by a species of worm. The new evidence extends that age by a factor of at least two. The fact that animals had already developed giant sperm 100 million years ago implies that this reproductive strategy can indeed be successful in the (very) long term, Matzke-Karasz points out. "That's a pretty impressive record for a trait that requires a considerable investment from both the males and females of the species. From an evolutionary point of view, sexual reproduction with the aid of giant sperm must therefore be a thoroughly profitable strategy."


Here's What That Viral Dinosaur TikTok Video Is About

Wednesday, September 16, 2020

Many of us have been wondering what that viral dinosaur TikTok means--here's the viral video explained.

Many of us have been wondering what that viral dinosaur TikTok means--here's the viral video explained. Genuine tears well up in the eyes of Eliza Petersen in her viral TikTok as she says, "Meatier!" She is wearing a paper beard to show that she is God. She is having a conversation with a confused angel, also played by Peterson.

She--as God-- is crying because there's just been a terrible mix-up and it has resulted in the demise of the dinosaurs. Thinking about mass extinction makes Peterson feel incredibly sad.

The thing is, God said, "meatier," but the angel (at least in this TikTok explanation of the dinosaurs' disappearance) understood "meteor." So, we can deduce that the angel sent a meteor to Earth, but that God actually just wanted his gigantic lizards to have more muscle--to be meatier. It's a play on words. It's not life-changing, but it's incredibly funny. Seeing Eliza Petersen's raw emotion as she says the words is what hooks the viewer.

BuzzFeed reports that Petersen, 23, works as a paralegal, but on the weekends she volunteers at the Natural History Museum of Utah's paleontology department. She's been busy working with fossils for the past four years. She's even thinking of going back to college to study paleontology.

"I think I’m around dinosaurs enough that I’ve grown this level of appreciation that most people don’t have. I thought about how it would be so sad to obliterate the dinosaurs, and simply by accident too, so I started to tear up."

Petersen says that she didn't come up with the pun--it's one that her dad has been telling since the '80s. This viral video is a family joke! Neither of them could believe it when the TikTok version of her dad's wordplay garnered more than a million views in one day. Now, more than 2.9 million people have watched it.

We, here at, can appreciate Petersen's video and the meme above. As mothers, we probably know more about dinosaurs than we ever wanted to. Suddenly, "parasaurolophus" comes up in daily conversations. We philosophize with our children about whether a T-rex or a spinosaurus would win in a fight. Of course, they lived on different continents and in different  periods, so the match is impossible, but let's use our imaginations.

Petersen certainly used her imagination when coming up with the concept for her TikTok. The 27-second video is worth a watch. It's guaranteed to make everyone laugh.

Source: BuzzFeed

Changmiania liaoningensis: New 'Eternal Sleeper' Dinosaurs Unearthed in China

Wednesday, September 16, 2020

Changmiania liaoningensis, an ornithopod dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of Lujiatun (Liaoning Province, China). (A) Holotype PMOL AD00114 in dorsal view; (B) anterior part of the holotype PMOL AD00114 in caudolateral view; (C) referred specimen PMOL LFV022 in dorsal view. Red arrows indicate the emplacement of the gastrolith clusters. Credit: PeerJ (2020). DOI: 10.7717/peerj.9832

A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in China, one in Argentina and one in Belgium has identified the fossilized remains of two previously unknown dinosaurs in China. In their paper published in the journal Peerj, the group describes the fossils, provide the name of the new dinosaur and illustrate possible clues to explain their excellent preservation.

The new dinosaur was actually discovered by farmers working in Liaoning province in northeastern China. They found the remains of two of the same new species, which the researchers have named Changmiania liaoningensis. Both were in nearly pristine condition. The name means "eternal sleeper" in Chinese, because both of the dinosaurs appeared to have been buried while alive with their eyes closed, looking as though they were asleep. The researchers suggest the reason for the quick demise and nearly pristine condition was likely due to a volcanic eruption catching them both as they slumbered in their burrow. The area where the dinosaurs were discovered was part of the plain that had been covered in debris from an ancient massive volcanic eruption, which had also covered many other creatures. The area is a well-known archeological dig site.

Both of the dinosaurs would have been just over a meter in length when alive, with long, nearly inflexible tails. They were an early ornithopod, a kind of dinosaur that walked upright on its large hind legs and burrowed in the ground like rabbits. They also had had shovel-shaped snouts, which would have helped with digging swiftly and efficiently. The neck and forearm were short but strong, and its shoulder blades resembled those of modern burrowing animals. The researchers suggest that the burrows in which the dinosaurs had been sleeping likely collapsed under the weight of the debris from the volcano, giving the dinosaurs no chance to dig themselves out. They note also that the tails of the dinosaurs had been stretched out due to stiffness. They also found a small cluster of rocks near the stomach area of one of the specimens—a sign that the dinosaur swallowed them like modern birds to help digest food.

Skull of PMOL AD00114 in right lateral view. (A) Photograph; (B) line drawing. Credit: PeerJ (2020). DOI: 10.7717/peerj.9832

More information: Yuqing Yang et al. A new basal ornithopod dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of China, PeerJ (2020). DOI: 10.7717/peerj.9832
Journal information: PeerJ

Provided by Science X Network / Source:

Jurassic World: 5 Things It Got Right (& 5 It Got Wrong)

Tuesday, September 15, 2020

Jurassic World may have been a box office success, but many Jurassic Park fans find it a disappointment. Overall, it has its merits and flaws.

A fourth Jurassic Park movie had been stuck in development hell for years following the crushing disappointment of Jurassic Park III. After a number of scripts that failed to give Universal the necessary faith to pump $150 million into producing a fourth movie, Colin Trevorrow came along with Jurassic World, the story of a functioning park whose dinosaurs escape and attack the guests.

Although its $1.6 billion worldwide box office gross would suggest that fans were perfectly happy with it, Jurassic World wasn’t without its flaws. There’s a lot to enjoy in its big-budget spectacle, but it’s nowhere near perfect.

10 - Right: A Functioning Park

Right off the bat, the premise upon which Jurassic World was built is a great one. The idea of a fourth Jurassic Park movie in which a functioning dinosaur-infested amusement park is up and running was a doozy.

Colin Trevorrow raised the stakes from the previous Jurassic sequels with huge crowds of people being present for the dinosaurs’ rampage.

9 - Wrong: “Deep Blue Sea With Dinosaurs” Storyline

After coming up with a great premise, the writers of Jurassic World backed it up with a predictable storyline that’s been aptly described as “Deep Blue Sea with dinosaurs.” Some scientists genetically modify a dangerous predator to make it smarter and then it uses those smarts to turn on the scientists — it’s an almost identical movie, with a different monster.

And on top of that, the idea that people would get bored of seeing live dinosaurs in action after just 10 years, prompting the park to invent a whole new dinosaur, is just absurd.

8 - Right: Plenty Of Dinosaur Action

What fans expect from a Jurassic movie, above all, is dinosaur action. Any musings on the dangers of playing God, exemplified perfectly in Spielberg’s original movie, are just the cherry on top.

The dino-centric action is what really matters, and Jurassic World has that in spades. The Indominus Rex’s first full-blown attack on the mercenaries sent to kill it plays like a terrifying horror movie as the mercs are effortlessly torn to shreds.

7 - Wrong: Thinly Drawn Characters

In the original Jurassic Park movie, Alan Grant, Ellie Sattler, and Ian Malcolm are all rounded, well-developed characters with distinctive personalities and arcs throughout the movie. In Jurassic World, Owen Grady and Claire Dearing are barely even characters at all.

Beyond Owen being roguish and charismatic (purely a result of Chris Pratt’s casting) and Claire being an uptight workaholic (one of three or four stock female characters that are seen in almost every movie), there’s not much to those characters.

6 - Right: Casting Chris Pratt And Bryce Dallas Howard

While their characters didn’t make full use of their talents, Chris Pratt and Bryce Dallas Howard still made for a compelling pair of leads in Jurassic World.

Pratt brings the same goofy charm to Owen Grady that he brought to Peter Quill a year earlier (albeit without the earnest character development), while Howard brings a dry sense of humor to Claire’s humility as the indirect reason for all the chaos.

5 - Wrong: Needless Bloodshed

There’s an unofficial rule in the Jurassic franchise that the only characters who get killed by the dinosaurs are the ones who deserve it, like some jerk who stole their eggs.

For the most part, Jurassic World sticks to this rule, but there’s one scene in the middle of the movie in which the tour guide assigned to Claire’s nephews, a completely innocent and harmless character, is given perhaps the grisliest death in the entire series as she’s dragged through the sky by a pterodactyl, dropped into a big water tank, and devoured by a Mosasaurus.

4 - Right: Michael Giacchino’s Score

Michael Giacchino came aboard Jurassic World with a tremendous respect for John Williams’ beloved Jurassic Park score. He didn’t try to reinvent the wheel; in fact, he incorporated Williams’ iconic themes wherever possible.

Giacchino’s score for Jurassic World recaptures the magic of the original movie’s music better than any other Jurassic sequel’s score — including Williams’ own score for The Lost World.

3 - Wrong: Lack Of Suspense

A huge part of what made the original Jurassic Park movie such a masterpiece was the Hitchcockian suspense that Spielberg brought to each set piece. From the raptors-in-the-kitchen scene to the T. rex attackJurassic Park is a masterclass in suspenseful filmmaking.

By contrast, Jurassic World falls flat. The camerawork and editing fail to create any suspense. Rather than being shot from the humans’ perspective like Jurassic Park, putting the audience in their shoes, Jurassic World is shot from the dinosaurs’ perspective.

2 - Right: Popcorn Thrills

It would’ve been unfair to expect Jurassic World to match the original Jurassic Park movie. Very few blockbusters have been able to pull off the balance between high-stakes action and thought-provoking themes that Jurassic Park nailed.

In the summer of 2015, Jurassic World arrived in multiplexes with a surplus of popcorn thrills, which is really all one can expect from a $150 million studio product in this day and age.

1 - Wrong: Self-Aware Nostalgia

Much like fellow 2015 franchise reboot Star Wars: The Force AwakensJurassic World makes heavy use of its audience’s nostalgia for the iconography of the original movie. But it goes a step further than The Force Awakens and makes that nostalgia weirdly meta and self-aware.

Jake Johnson’s nerdy control room technician character wears a t-shirt with the original Jurassic Park logo on it. His nostalgia for the failed theme park is supposed to represent fans’ nostalgia for Spielberg’s 1993 classic. In-universe, he’s nostalgic for a tragedy that killed several people and traumatized two children.


After 90 Years Gathering Dust, B.C. Dinosaur Bones Identified As Belonging To Club-Tailed Species

Monday, September 14, 2020

These fossil were discovered in 1930 but only recently identified as the bones of an ankylosaurian dinosaur — the first ever ankylosaur bones ever found in B.C. (Supplied by Victoria Arbour)

Overlooked fossil bones from Peace River region belong to ankylosaur from 95 million years ago

Bones unearthed 90 years ago in northeastern B.C. have finally been identified as the 95-million-year-old remnants of an ankylosaurian dinosaur — a group of animals known to have tail clubs. 

"It's the first record of dinosaur bones from this particular group of dinosaurs in British Columbia," said Victoria Arbour, who led work to identify the fossils.

Arbour, curator of paleontology at the Royal B.C. Museum, said this also marks the first time dinosaur bones from this era were discovered in B.C. 

The fossils were originally found in 1930 along the Pine River, near Chetwynd, in the province's northeast region. 

Victoria Arbour, a dinosaur expert at the Royal B.C. Museum, digs for fossils along the Pine River in northeastern B.C., where the ankylosaurian fossil bones were found 90 years ago. (Supplied by Victoria Arbour)

The rib and two broken vertebrae come from a stocky, four-legged dinosaur with bony plates and spikes. Some ankylosaurian species are known for the distinct ball of bone at the tip of their tail called a 'tail club,' said Arbour. 

The long-overlooked fossils are currently part of the Canadian Museum of Nature's collection.

"The work of Dr. Arbour and her peers in this paper reminds us of the central role played by museum collections, the source of exciting new discoveries even decades after specimens are acquired," said Jack Lohman, CEO of the Royal B.C. Museum, in a news release.

Ankylosaur footprints preserved in the rock near Flatbed Creek near Tumbler Ridge, B.C. (Pecold/Shutterstock)

So, how did they determine that these fossil bones came from an ankylosaur?

"It all has to do with the rocks that they come from," said Arbour. "This is why when fossils are collected, it's so important to note down where exactly they were found with as much detail as possible."

Ankylosaurian footprints had previously been found in the Peace River region. Arbour hopes this latest revelation means there are more bones to be discovered in the area.

For those interested in learning more about the discovery, Arbour's paper — An ankylosaurian dinosaur from the Cenomanian Dunvegan Formation of northeastern British Columbia, Canada  — can be found here.

The Ziapelta is an example of an ankylosaurian dinosaur with a fully developed tail club. Its fossilized bones have been found in New Mexico in the southern U.S. (Artist: Sydney Mohr)


How Jurassic World Solved The Original Park's Biggest Tourist Problem

Tuesday, September 15, 2020

Jurassic World was an awesome theme park (before the dinosaurs got loose) that fixed the original Park's problem of guests seeing dinosaurs up close.

One of Jurassic World's innovations solved an old issue Jurassic Park had: the guests could now ride Gyrospheres to get up close to the dinosaurs as opposed to waiting (in vain) for the creatures to become visible. Directed by Colin Trevorrow, Jurassic World launched a new sequel trilogy that followed up the original film saga directed by Steven Spielberg and Joe Johnston, and the final film, Jurassic World: Dominion, is expected to premiere in 2021.

In Steven Spielberg's beloved 1993 Jurassic Park, the island of Isla Nublar was still closed to visitors and billionaire John Hammond (Richard Attenborough) invited a select group guests to inspect the stability of the park. Dr. Alan Grant (Sam Neill), Dr. Ellie Sattler (Laura Dern), and Dr. Ian Malcolm (Jeff Goldblum) were the scientists Hammond hoped would sign off on Jurassic Park and please his investors. Of course, their tour of the facility, which included Hammond's grandchildren Lex (Ariana Richards) and Tim (Joseph Mazzello), resulted in disaster as the dinosaurs broke loose, killed several people, and destroyed the park. But even prior to the dinosaurs running amok, the inspection tour was going badly. At each stop, there were do visible dinosaurs since, being animals, they don't appear on cue and perform for guests. Malcolm even drew Hammond's ire when he mocked, "Ah, now eventually you do plan to have dinosaurs on your dinosaur tour, right?"

Trevorrow's billion-dollar-grossing 2015 blockbuster showed the dinosaur theme park, rebranded as Jurassic World by its new owner, Masrani Global Corporation, as fully operational. In fact, prior to the film's catastrophic dinosaur outbreak, Jurassic World successfully operated for 10 years and welcomed tens of thousands of guests. Jurassic World was John Hammond's dream come true: It was a luxury resort, theme park, biological preserve rolled into one, and Jurassic World boasted restaurants, nightlife, and a golf course. Further, Jurassic World brought guests closer to the dinosaurs than ever before, thanks to the use of Gyrospheres. The two-person vehicles were globes that could drive at 5 mph and guests could pilot them to ride right next to the gentle giants of the park, like the triceratops and the brachiosaurs.

The Gyrospheres were heavily featured in the two Jurassic World movies set on Isla Nublar. In Jurassic World, the nephews of Claire Dearing (Bryce Dallas Howard) rode the Gyrospheres into the park and interacted with the herbivores, until they entered a restricted area and encountered the rampaging Indominus Rex, which destroyed their Gyrosphere. In Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, the Gyrospheres saved the lives of Claire, Owen Grady (Chris Pratt), and their friends; as the volcano on Isla Nublar erupted and destroyed the island, they were able to escape the island in the Gyropsheres into the relative safety of the sea.

Jurassic World had other clever means to give guests meaningful and unforgettable interactions with InGen's prehistoric clones. Other attractions included the Gentle Giants Petting Zoo for children to play with young herbivores. The Cretaceous Cruise allowed guests t0 kayak down a river and see the dinosaurs up close on the shores and in the water. And for visitors who didn't mind getting soaked, the Mosasaurus Feeding Show at the Jurassic World Lagoon let them witness the enormous aquatic dinosaur perform tricks, and they could even see the Mosasaurus swimming in the Underwater Observatory.

But the Gyrospheres, which were bulletproof and featured an instructional video hosted by Jimmy Fallon, were Jurassic World's coolest rides and they were a big improvement on the Ford Explorers used in the original Jurassic Park tour. Arguably the best part of Jurassic World was seeing the theme park fully-operational for the first time, which is something fans watching the original Jurassic Park trilogy could only imagine. The Gyrospheres were a big reason why a visit to Jurassic World seemed so cool - until the dinosaurs got loose and destroyed the park (again).


First Ever Preserved Grown Up Cave Bear - Even Its Nose Is Intact - Unearthed On The Arctic island

Saturday, September 12, 2020

Unique discovery of the perfectly preserved extinct cave bear showing its teeth after up to 39,000 years. Picture: NEFU

Separately at least one preserved carcass of a cave bear cub found on the mainland of Yakutia, with scientists hopeful of obtaining its DNA.

More details of the finds are to be announced soon.

Until now only the bones of cave bears have been discovered. 

The new finds are of ‘world importance’, according to one of Russia’s leading experts on extinct Ice Age species. 

Scientist Lena Grigorieva said of the island discovery of the adult beast: 'Today this is the first and only find of its kind - a whole bear carcass with soft tissues. 

'It is completely preserved, with all internal organs in place including even its nose. 

“Previously, only skulls and bones were found. This find is of great importance for the whole world.’

First ever preserved grown up cave bear - even its nose is intact - unearthed on Bolshoy Lyakhovsky island, with at least one preserved carcass of a cave bear cub found on the mainland of Yakutia. Pictures: NEFU

The remains were found by reindeer herders on the island and the remains will be analysed by scientists at the North-Eastern Federal University (NEFU) in Yakutsk, which is at the forefront of research into extinct woolly mammoths and rhinos. 

Russian and foreign colleagues will be invited to join the study. 

The cave bear (Ursus spelaeus) is a prehistoric species or subspecies that lived in Eurasia in the Middle and Late Pleistocene period and became extinct about 15,000 years ago.

According to the rough preliminary suggestions the bear could live in Karginsky interglacial (this was the period between 22,000 and 39,500 years).

'It is necessary to carry out radiocarbon analysis to determine the precise age of the bear,’ said senior researcher Maxim Cheprasov from the Mammoth Museum laboratory in Yakutsk.

The finder transferred the right to research to the scientists of NEFU, he said.

Bolshoy Lyakhovsky Island, or Great Lyakhovsky, is the largest of the Lyakhovsky Islands belonging to the New Siberian Islands archipelago between the Laptev Sea and the East Siberian Sea in northern Russia. Picture: Alexander Oboimov

'A scientific programme for its comprehensive study will be prepared. We will have to study the carcass of a bear using all modern scientific research methods - molecular genetic, cellular, microbiological and others.

'The research is planned on as large a scale as in the study of the famous Malolyakhovsky mammoth,’ said Dr Grigorieva, leading researcher of the International Centre for Collective Use of Molecular Paleontology at the NEFU’s Institute of Applied Ecology of the North.

Recent years have seen major discoveries of mammoths, woolly rhinos, Ice Age foal, several puppies and Cave Lion cubs as the permafrost melts in Siberia.

Lena Grigorieva, first from the left, leading researcher of the International Centre for Collective Use of Molecular Paleontology at the NEFU’s Institute of Applied Ecology of the North. Lena is pictured by the carcass of a 42,000 year old foal found inside the Batagai depression in Yakutia


More Than 200 Mammoth Skeletons Discovered In Mexico City

Saturday, September 12, 2020

Discovery might help explain why the species went extinct

Talk about making a big discovery. Actually, make that a mammoth-sized discovery. Construction workers in Mexico City uncovered the bones of more than 200 mammoths while making way for an airport recently. Experts were quickly called to the scene. The site has since been nicknamed “mammoth central” by archeologists and paleontologists.

What are mammoths?

Mammoths were mammals related to the modern elephant.

The animals used to roam North America but are now extinct, meaning they disappeared from the planet like the dinosaurs.

Scientists aren’t exactly sure why mammoths went extinct.

Some say it was because of  the presence of early humans. Others blame a changing climate.

Paleontologist Joaquin Arroyo Cabrales said the airport site will be “very important” when it comes to testing various extinction theories.

Why the mammoth graveyard?

(Graphic design by Allison Cake/CBC)

The construction site appears to be on top of what was an ancient lakebed.

Experts believe the mammoths were drawn to the water and then got trapped in the marshy soil.

Other creatures also found

Paleontologists used all kinds of tools to safely unearth the bones at the ancient site. (Image credit: Marco Ugarte/The Associated Press)

When they started digging at the site, scientists found other types of animal bones as well.

That includes the bones of about 25 camels and five horses, said archeologist Rubén Manzanilla López of the National Institute of Anthropology and History.

Sounds like a prehistoric zoo!

Archeologists and paleontologists continue to discover new things about the mammoth site.

For example, there are signs that humans might have made tools out of the mammoth bones between 10,000 and 20,000 years ago.


Jurassic World Camp Cretaceous: 7 Quick Things We Know About The Netflix Animated Series

Saturday, September 12, 2020

One of the things that has made the Jurassic Park and Jurassic World movies so powerful and meaningful over the past 27 years is the franchises' sense of wonder through the eyes of children. Netflix hopes to capture that feeling once again with the upcoming Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous animated series, so much so that the streaming platform accidentally promoted it nearly 18 months early back in March 2019. But now that it's nearly time for the show to finally hit the streaming devices around the world in September 2020, longtime fans of the franchise, and newcomers, might be looking for some information on the animated series.

Well, we have some good news for you then, because we've put together a quick list of things we know and what we can expect from the new animated series Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous.

Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous Is An Animated Show About Teens Trapped In The Park

Instead of focusing on adult paleontologists, botanists, and mathematiciansJurassic World: Camp Cretaceous will take audiences on a journey from the perspective of the park's key demographic: kids, well, teenagers to be exact. According to Netflix, the animated series will follow a group of six teens who are invited to attend Camp Cretaceous on the other side of Isla Nublar. Everything seems fine at first, but when dinosaurs escape their enclosures and Jurassic World enters a state of chaos, the campers are stranded in the park with no contact with the outside world. Together, the six teens must come together and come up with a plan to escape the park.

Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous Season 1 Premieres September 2020

We won't have to wait long to catch Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous because Season 1 of the Netflix animated series premieres September 18, 2020, with all eight, 30-minute episodes available to stream at launch. Those of us who love to binge shows will be able to knock out this dinosaur adventure in a few hours.

The Show Is Aimed Towards Kids

Anyone who has watched the trailer (which you can watch at the bottom of this article) or come across the McDonald's Happy Meal toys from the show knows that Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous is aimed at a younger audience than the mainline movies. With a story centering around a group of young teenagers having to overcome obstacles in their environment and friendships, the show looks like it will be packed with all sorts of lessons for kids. And going off the previous efforts from the series' showrunners and executive producers Scott Kreamer (Pinky Malinky) and Lane Lueras (Kung Fu Panda: The Paws of Destiny), expect to see some wild and lighthearted adventures along the way.

In September 2020, Deadline reported that the show has also launched a website,, featuring games, lessons, and information about Jurassic World and its dino inhabitants.

The Show Is Set On The Same Island From The Movies

Does Isla Nublar sound familiar? Well, it should because it's only been the setting of five of the six movies in the franchise (The Lost World: Jurassic Park was set on Isla Sorna). According to VarietyJurassic World: Camp Cretaceous will be set during the timeline of 2015's Jurassic World, but instead of hanging around the visitors center and more populated sections of the doomed park, the campers will be on the far end of the island taking part in all sorts of adventures at the high-tech dinosaur camp with no contact with their counselors or other members of park staff.

The Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous Voice Cast Includes Jameela Jamil, Glen Powell And More

The Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous cast is split up into two camps: the teens at the center of the struggle and the two counselors who guide them through the scenic yet deadly island. Leading the adult side of the cast are Jameela Jamil of The Good Place, as Roxie, and Glen Powell, of Top Gun: Maverick, as Dave, who are both skilled paleontologists who run the ill-fated camp.

Then there is the group of campers who find themselves in the wrong place at the wrong time. They consist of Paul-Mikél Williams as Darius Bowman, Jenna Ortega as Kenji Kon, Kauser Mohammed as Yaz Fadoula, Raini Rodriguez as Sammy Gutierrez, and Sean Giambrone as Ben Pincus. Each of the campers has a different personality and with their own strengths and weaknesses that will all come into play throughout the group's trek back to civilization.

Steven Spielberg And Colin Trevorrow Are Among The Show's Executive Producers

Back when Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous was first announced in June 2019, THR reported that the show would be a collaboration between Netflix and DreamWorks Animation, with the latter bringing in some heavy hitters. In addition to Scott Kreamer and Lane Lueras running the show, Steven Spielberg, Frank Marshall, and Colin Trevorrow also serve as executive producers, with Zack Stentz acting as a consulting producer. How Spielberg, Marshall, and Trevorrow, who all played major roles in getting the various Jurassic Park and Jurassic World projects off the ground, will impact the show remains to be seen, but it doesn't hurt having some of the most successful dinosaur directors attached to the project.

Watch The Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous Trailer Down Below

As noted in the introduction, Netflix has been excited about Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous for some time now, and the streaming giant recently dropped a full-fledged trailer to get everyone hyped up about what's in store for the campers as they explore Isla Nublar and try to get home in one piece. You can watch the trailer down below:

Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous trailer

Are you excited for Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous and to see what new adventures are in store for one of entertainment's most successful properties? Make sure to sound off in the comments below and let us know what you're most excited about ahead of the show's September 18, 2020 premiere on Netflix.