nandi's blog

Sponge-Like Animals May Have Lived in Oceans 890 Million Years Ago

Saturday, July 31, 2021

The 890-million-year-old tube-shaped structures occluded by clear blocky calcite enclosed by cloudy calcite groundmass of slightly smaller crystals. Image credit: E.C. Turner, doi: 10.1038/s41586-021-03773-z.

Paleontologists have found possible sponge body fossils in 890-million-year-old microbial reefs in northwestern Canada. If verified, they may pre-date the next-oldest undisputed sponge fossils by around 350 million years.

Genetic evidence from modern sponges suggests that sponges emerged during the Neoproterozoic era, between one billion and 541 million years ago.

However, fossilized sponge bodies from this period have been lacking.

“The search for definitive physical evidence of pre-Cryogenian multicellular animals is confounded by uncertainty about what to look for, but preserved physical evidence should be small, subtle and possibly altogether unfamiliar,” said Professor Elizabeth Turner, a paleontologist in the Harquail School of Earth Sciences at Laurentian University.

“Given that sponges are the most basic of known animals, physical evidence of Neoproterozoic sponges could be sought, but effort focused on the characteristics of mineralized sponge skeletons overlooks sponges with only spongin or keratin skeletons.”

“Early evidence of multicellular animals might instead resemble preservational products of sponge soft tissue rather than mineralized sponge skeletal components.”

“Although molecular clock data suggest that sponges emerged in the early Neoproterozoic, the oldest undisputed sponge body fossils are from the Cambrian period.”

Characteristics and distribution of Little Dal structures in stratigraphically oriented 30-μm-thick thin sections. Image credit: E.C. Turner, doi: 10.1038/s41586-021-03773-z.

In the new research, Professor Turner examined rock samples extracted from Little Dal reefs in northwestern Canada.

The reefs, which are part of the Stone Knife Formation, were built by calcifying cyanobacteria 890 million years ago.

Within the samples, the researcher identified branching networks of millimetric-to-centimetric tube-shaped structures that contained, and were surrounded by, crystals of calcite.

These structures closely resemble the fibrous skeleton found within demosponges and structures previously identified in calcium carbonate rocks that are thought to have been created by the decay of demosponge bodies.

Professor Turner proposes that the Little Dal structures may be the fossilized remains of demosponges that lived on, in and beside calcium carbonate reefs approximately 90 million years before Earth’s oxygen levels increased to levels thought to be necessary to support animal life.

If the structures are accepted as sponge body fossils, the findings could imply that the evolution of early animals occurred independently of this oxygenation event and that early animal life survived severe ice ages that occurred between 720 and 635 million years ago.

“If the vermiform-microstructured masses in the Little Dal reefs are accepted as early sponge body fossils, their approximately 890 million-year age would imply that the evolutionary emergence of metazoans was decoupled from the Neoproterozoic oxygenation event and early animal life was not catastrophically affected by the Neoproterozoic glacial episodes,” Professor Turner said.

“If the Little Dal objects are truly sponge body fossils, they are older than the next-youngest undisputed sponge body fossils by approximately 350 million years.”

The findings were published in the journal Nature.

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E.C. Turner. Possible poriferan body fossils in early Neoproterozoic microbial reefs. Nature, published July 28, 2021; doi: 10.1038/s41586-021-03773-z

Source: www.sci-news.com/

The True Heart of the Jurassic Park Franchise Isn't the Dinosaurs

Friday, July 30, 2021

The Jurassic Park series focuses on the science and ethics of making dinosaurs, but its success is owed largely to a certain set of characters.

Now more than ever, the Jurassic Park franchise has shed a massive light on the constant scientific and ethical dilemmas that come with creating creatures that have been extinct for millions of years. The most recent films have also dealt with how people often look at them as property rather than living creatures. However, they are much more than that. In fact, dinosaurs represent the wonder and excitement of seeing something that shouldn't be possible, a reaction best experienced through the children of the series.

Over five films, the children of Jurassic Park have been a bit of a sore spot among fans because they are often at the center of some of the more dangerous parts of the series. This includes Kelly from The Lost World: Jurassic Park stowing away to an island where dinosaurs roam free, or the young girl at the beginning of the film unwittingly feeding a pack of compies. While they don't always have the best ideas in the films, kids can be excused because of their innocence and wonder in seeing these creatures firsthand. For better or worse, there is a level of excitement that is rarely seen in adults and always seen in children.

This excitement is best seen in the first film, when Timmy speaks with Dr. Alan Grant about everything he has learned regarding dinosaurs. Even though Grant doesn't want to hear it, it's hard to ignore and helps prove why John Hammond created the park for dreamers in the first place. That same knowledge and excitement are also shown with Gray in Jurassic World, who doesn't hide his adoration of dinosaurs and makes sure to mention every fun fact about the species he sees.

While that same knowledge and excitement can sometimes get the kids of the films into trouble, it has more often saved them and the other humans. In the first film, Lex, while terrified, is able to use her fascination with the computers that helped bring the park to life to help return power to the entire island. That survivor instinct is also seen with Eric Kirby in Jurassic Park III, who spends eight weeks on Isla Sorna with nothing but his knowledge and will to survive. Similar knowledge from Gray also spurred Claire Dearing to get the T-Rex to fight the Indominus Rex because he said they needed "more teeth."

The wonder of the dinosaurs is often lost on the adults of the franchise. But if there is one character who never lost their wonder, it was Dr. Grant. Even after his ordeal in the first film and his hesitation to return in the third, he never stopped working to understand dinosaurs. His love and, most importantly, respect for these creatures comes full circle with Maisie Lockwood in Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom.

Like the other dinosaurs in the film, Maisie is the product of genetic cloning and, more than anyone, understands that the dinosaurs deserve a chance to live. Like Dr. Grant, she knows that while they are out of place in modern society, they are animals that deserve respect and understanding instead of profit. If she didn't take the time to admire them as living miracles, they would have died at the end of the film instead of been set free. In the end, it took a child to see their importance and how they deserve a chance like any other living thing.

The children of the Jurassic Park franchise may not always have the best ideas, but they understand the importance and gravity of the situation and the creatures they are surrounded by. Most of the adults in the franchise only see the profit and scientific opportunity of dinosaurs. But the children see the wonder of creatures that shouldn't be alive looking back at them. That same wonder is what drives them to learn and understand more and make choices that help save the lives of others. Children are the heart of the Jurassic Park franchise and without them, the wonder that makes films special would go extinct.

Source: www.cbr.com/

Dinosaur-Killing Asteroid May Have Made Earth’s Largest Ripple Marks

Friday, July 30, 2021

The Chicxulub asteroid (illustrated) slammed into Earth where today’s Yucatán Peninsula sits. That impact formed a tsunami that spread across the Gulf of Mexico that may have left giant ripples in rock under present-day Louisiana.  MARK GARLICK/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY/GETTY IMAGES

Impact created a tsunami that etched massive structures under what’s now Louisiana, study says.

The asteroid impact that slew the dinosaurs may have also indirectly sculpted the largest ripple marks ever found on Earth.

A series of ridgelike structures more than three stories high and spaced nearly two Eiffel Towers apart appear to be buried about 1,500 meters beneath central Louisiana. The oversized features are megaripples shaped by a massive tsunami generated by the Chicxulub asteroid impact, researchers report in the Sept. 15 Earth and Planetary Science Letters.

“It’s just interesting that something that happened 66 million years ago could be so well preserved, buried 5,000 feet down in the sediments of Louisiana,” says geologist Gary Kinsland of the University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

Ripple marks are repeating sequences of ridges typically found on sandy beaches or stream bottoms that form as wind or water flows over and moves loose sediment. But ripple marks on the beach are often centimeters in height, while the structures found by Kinsland’s team have an average height of 16 meters and are spaced about 600 meters apart.

The marks’ shape, size, orientation and location suggest that they formed after the Chicxulub asteroid crashed into what is today’s Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico, generating a tsunami that washed across the sediments of the Gulf of Mexico and over what is now Louisiana, which was underwater at the time (SN: 11/2/17). Despite the tsunami’s width, no one has ever found ripple marks formed by the wave before.

Geologist Kaare Egedahl initially discovered the newly described ripples while searching for coal deposits. Studying at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette at the time, Egedahl had been combing through seismic reflection data – 3-D images of buried rock and soil generated by underground sound waves — provided by the Devon Energy company. Egedahl, now at the oil and gas company Cantium, found the ripples atop a layer of rock thought to have formed from debris shaken up by the Chicxulub asteroid impact. He then shared his finding with Kinsland.

Subsurface megaripples (most pronounced near the red line) under Louisiana were imaged using reflected sound waves that traveled through Earth’s crust MARTELL STRONG

“I knew where that layer was from in geologic time, and I knew what happened there,” Kinsland says. “I knew there should be a tsunami.”

The supposed ripple marks were preserved all this time thanks to the depth at which they formed underwater, Kinsland says. Other studies suggest that the region of present-day Louisiana in which the ripples took shape was 60 meters below the sea surface at the time. At that depth, the ripples would have been beyond the reach of tumultuous storm activity that could have erased them. Then, over millions of years, the marks were slowly buried by other sediments.

A smaller, analogous set of structures may exist off the east coast of Japan. There, a repeating sequence of underwater dunes was reported to have appeared after the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami. Those dunes look nearly identical to the ripple marks buried beneath Louisiana, except for their size, Kinsland says, supporting the notion that the taller structures were also produced by a tsunami, though one of a much larger magnitude.

Still, there is contention over whether the features beneath Louisiana really are megaripples formed by the Chicxulub tsunami.

“It’s hard to see how such a high-energy event could form ripple marks because they are usually associated with much calmer environments,” says sedimentologist Pedro J.M. Costa of the Universidade de Coimbra in Portugal. And ripple marks typically form from frequent and recurring wave motion, while tsunamis don’t have many waves, he explains. Costa, who is an expert on tsunami deposits, says that reconstructing the lay of the seafloor at that time of the impact and conducting experiments could help unravel the origins of the structures found by Kinsland’s team.

This new work is important because it opens a discussion, Costa says. “Maybe [the Chicxulub impact was] such a high-magnitude event that what we see in normal tsunami events don’t apply to this one.”

A version of this article appears in the August 28, 2021 issue of Science News.

 

CITATIONS

G.L. Kinsland et alChicxulub impact tsunami megaripples in the subsurface of Louisiana: Imaged in petroleum industry seismic dataEarth and Planetary Science Letters. Vol. 570, September 15, 2021. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2021.117063.

Source: www.sciencenews.org/

Paleontologists Find Thousands of Jurassic-Period Echinoderm Fossils

Friday, July 30, 2021

Some of the exquisitely preserved 167-million-year-old echinoderms from the Cotswolds area, England. Image credit: Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London.

Over 1,000 perfectly-preserved echinoderm specimens dating back 167 million years (Jurassic period) have been excavated in a quarry in the Cotswolds area of England.

Echinoderms are a group of animals including starfish, brittle stars, feather stars, sea lilies, sea cucumbers and echinoids (sea urchins and sea potatoes or dollars).

Surprisingly, and highly unusually, species belonging to all these groups have been discovered at a quarry in the Cotswolds.

“The exceptional preservation of so many individuals belonging to diverse echinoderm groups is exceptional and makes the site comparable to the best in the world,” said Dr. Tim Ewin, senior curator at the Natural History Museum, London.

The new fossil-bearing site was discovered by two amateur paleontologists Sally and Neville Hollingworth.

“We were looking for new sites to explore once lockdown ended. We do this by scrolling through Google maps around areas we know fossils have been found,” Sally Hollingworth said.

“The site we eventually discovered, a small quarry, seemed perfect.”

“We thought we would find a few interesting specimens but never expected the site to be so special,” Neville Hollingworth added.

“As soon as we realized what we were dealing with, and the scientific importance of it, we contacted the Natural History Museum.”

The new site would have been a warm, relatively shallow sea some 167 million years ago (Jurassic period).

“It seems likely that a river was flowing into the sea nearby bringing in high levels of nutrients which attracted the large numbers of echinoderms we are finding,” Dr. Ewin said.

Many of the other species being unearthed at the site are already known to science, however, many were described over 100 years ago and based on incomplete or poorly prepared specimens.

However, three echinoderm species — a type of feather star, a brittle star and a sea cucumber — are new to science.

“Many of the specimens we have excavated are trapped in large slabs of clay in groups,” said Mark Graham, senior fossil preparator at the Natural History Museum, London.

“We now need to carefully explore these blocks to discover the most scientifically important specimens and prepare them for public display.”

Source: www.sci-news.com/

Sci-Fi Novel Portrays Convicts Condemned to Cretaceous

Thursday, July 29, 2021

Dan Busby shows what happens when physics-shattering technological breakthroughs are used to reform and decongest the United States’ penitentiary system. The result is a sci-fi smorgasbord that blends “Jurassic Park” with “Con Air,” following a wrongfully convicted man who finds himself serving his sentence in the Cretaceous. He is "Lost in Time: Trapped in a Prehistoric World" and must survive a primordial wilderness rife with ravenous reptiles.

The year is 2040, the United States corrections system that once boasted one of the world's largest prison populations has found a way to save money and free up space. By using time machines to send inmates back through time. The technology is exclusively used by the government, designed and maintained by men like Jimmy Dantly. When a freak accident leads to the death of a co-worker, Jimmy is suspected as the evidence points to him. He is shocked when the trial ends with his conviction, where he is sentenced by the judge to be sent to the Cretaceous - the time of the dinosaurs and the era of Tyrannosaurus Rex.

He finds himself in this land before time, hunted by prehistoric predators and other hostile wildlife. Due to a stroke of luck, he connects with a fellow prisoner who has survived there for a year. The only thing they have are high-powered rifles, given to them by sympathetic time machine crews. Equipped with little else, they must rely on their skills, their determination, and devise a way to not only survive their hostile and violent environment but somehow escape the time period.

With "Lost in Time: Trapped in a Prehistoric World" Busby treats his readers to a story of wilderness survival and desperation unlike any other, showing how ingenious the mind can be and how unconquerable the human spirit truly is - even in an untamed land ruled by dinosaurs.
 

About the Author
Dan Busby loves adventure, answering the call of the wild and scaling great heights, generally enjoying the great outdoors. He is a registered nurse and fulfills his longing for adventure by penning riveting stories. He has been interviewed on radio by Al Cole and Kate Delaney, and has also been featured in a Walla Walla Union Bulletin newspaper article. Busby is also a musician and connects his talent for music and writing.

Source: www.einnews.com/

Can Internal Organs of Prehistoric Species Be Preserved?

Wednesday, July 28, 2021

(Photo : Russell Bicknell)

Paleontologists Discover Fossilized Central Nervous System of 310 Million-Years-Old Arthropod.

In the book 'On The Origin of Species,' Charles Darwin said that there are imperfections that will be met as we unearth prehistoric organisms for study. Darwin implies that there is no chance that we could get a perfectly preserved fossil unless it would be conserved under the precise circumstances that it needs to be able to survive other factors throughout the generation while it was buried.

Paleontology experts are successful in finding well-preserved fossils over a century after Darwin wrote his book. Among the finest discoveries of the fossil-hunting community is the preservation of soft-bodied organisms, like mollusks which include the jellyfish. This proves that it is actually possible though the question of whether the internal organs could be fossilized still remains unanswered.

The anatomy of animals is theorized to be delicate, and there are a few accounts of the internal organs being preserved in fossilized species. But according to the study published in the journal Geology, entitled "Central Nervous System of a 310-m.y.-old Horseshoe Crab: Expanding the Taphonomic Window for Nervous System Preservation," the internal organs of one of the invertebrate species, or arthropods, can be preserved in its finest state.

This prehistoric arthropod discovered is a horseshoe crab that has roamed our planet 310 million years ago. The horseshoe crab was added with the line of organisms that have their organs intact, with its brain being the one discovered in its complete form. The intricate fossilization of the species' central nervous system gave a better understanding to the experts on how to properly preserve an organ.

Fossilized Brain of Prehistoric Arthropods Well-Preserved

The brain of the horseshoe crab, like many other species with their organ intact, are usually found to be perfectly intact in amber deposits and Burgess Shale. Amber somewhat resembles the modern-day resin, but its formation originates from tree barks that trap any organisms in their perfect form.

Ambers fossilize an organism in the best way possible. It can show the anatomical detail of the animal, as minimal decay takes place on its body. The horseshoe crab, fortunately, was trapped in an amber fossil. This has opened opportunities for paleontologists to conduct a comprehensive study on the arthropod's intact brain, even to the tiniest detail the central nervous system contains. One of the oldest prehistoric arthropods that were discovered in an amber fossil dates back 230 million years ago, which matches the Triassic period.

The Burgess Shale-type deposits, compared to the amber fossils, are identified to preserve species much older than the Triassic period. Most of the species recorded in the Burgess Shale fossils are marine arthropods, which date back to 500-520 million years ago, in the Cambrian period. Combing the amber and Burgess Shale-type fossils, scientists can have the data on the oldest animals known, as well as the information regarding the evolutionary history and origin studies.

The Euproops danae, also known as the horseshoe crab, was unearthed in the Mazon Creek located in Illinois. Most of the subjects found in the area are intact because of the siderite, a mineral composed of iron carbonate. According to The Conversation, the newly discovered prehistoric arthropod will be an addition to the studies regarding the anatomy of biological organisms in the prehistoric era, and how these extinct species evolved through time.

Source: www.sciencetimes.com/

Desmodus draculae: 100,000-Year-Old Fossil of Giant Vampire Bat Found in Argentina

Tuesday, July 27, 2021

Desmodus draculae in a burrow of a giant sloth. Image credit: Daniel Boh / Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Miramar.

Paleontologists in Argentina have found a fossilized jaw of the extinct bat species Desmodus draculae inside an ancient burrow of a giant sloth.

Desmodus draculae is an extinct species of leaf-nosed bat that inhabited Central and South Americas from the Pleistocene Epoch until the early Holocene epoch.

First described in 1988, its fossils are known from Argentina, Mexico, Ecuador, Brazil, Venezuela, Belize, and Bolivia.

Desmodus draculae had a wingspan of up to 50 cm (20 inches) and a body mass of 60 g, making it the largest known vampire bat of all time.

It belongs to the subfamily Desmodontinae (vampire bats), which also includes three extinct and three living species.

“The size of Desmodus draculae was larger than that of a computer keyboard and significantly larger than that of its living relatives,” said Dr. Santiago Brizuela, a paleontologist at the Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata and CONICET.

The food source of Desmodus draculae and other vampire bats is blood, a dietary trait called hematophagy.

“Their name came from the legends of the Transailvania and its creepy Count Dracula,” said Dr. Mariano Magnussen, a paleontologist at the Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Miramar.

“In reality, they are peaceful animals that feed on the blood of animals, and sometimes humans, for a few minutes without causing discomfort.”

“The only bad thing is that they can transmit rabies or other diseases if they are infected. Surely their prehistoric representatives had similar behaviors.”

The fossilized jaw of Desmodus draculae. Image credit: Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Miramar.

The new fossil of Desmodus draculae is at least 100,000 years old (Late Pleistocene epoch).

It was found at a paleontological site near southeastern Buenos Aires in Argentina.

“The jaw of Desmodus draculae was found inside a cave or burrow 1.2 m (3.9 feet) in diameter attributed to a giant sloth of the family Mylodontidae, such as Scelidotherium,” said Dr. Daniel Tassara, a paleontologist at the Museo Municipal de Ciencias Naturales Pachamama.

“We do not know if this vampire entered the cave to feed, take refuge, or was prey to another animal.”

Desmodus draculae was the last of the giant flying mammals. It became extinct during the colonial period, around 1820, possibly as a consequence from the Little Ice Age,” the researchers said.

The team’s paper was published in the journal Ameghiniana.

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Santiago Brizuela & Daniel A. Tassara. 2021. New Record of the Vampire Desmodus draculae (Chiroptera) from the Late Pleistocene of Argentina. Ameghiniana 58 (2): 169-176; doi: 10.5710/AMGH.30.12.2020.3379

Source: www.sci-news.com/

Every Dinosaur Confirmed (& Rumored) For Jurassic World: Dominion

Sunday, July 25, 2021

Jurassic World: Dominion is set to include an exciting cast of prehistoric creatures. Here's a look at the dinosaurs confirmed and rumored to appear.

Jurassic World: Dominion is set to include an exciting cast of dinosaurs and other prehistoric creatures. The third entry in the Jurassic World trilogy, and the sixth Jurassic feature overall, will release in 2022, four years after the debut of 2018's Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom. Dominion is also being touted as a finale of sorts for the series and will conclude the story that began all the way back in 1993's Jurassic Park.

Following Fallen Kingdom's escape-focused ending, Jurassic World: Dominion will follow the cast of the previous Jurassic World movies and returning favorites from the Jurassic Park trilogy as they struggle to survive in a world where dinosaurs have finally reached the mainland. With the genetically modified creatures no longer restricted to a remote island or a contained facility, the world must come to decide what the ultimate fate of these once-extinct beasts will be. Described by director Colin Trevorrow as a science thriller, the film will bring the Jurassic story to its dramatic and long-awaited ending.

No Jurassic Park or Jurassic World film would be complete without a roster of dinosaurs, both new and familiar. Among all the specific dinosaurs already confirmed to return, such as the terrifying T-Rex and Blue the Velociraptor, there are several brand-new dinosaurs that are making their first appearances in the franchise. There are even a few unconfirmed dinosaurs that, if rumors are true, might just pop up in the film. Here's a complete look at every dinosaur confirmed or speculated to appear in Jurassic World: Dominion.

T-Rex

It wouldn't be a Jurassic film without a T-Rex, and Jurassic World: Dominion is no exception. The iconic predator is the unofficial mascot for the series, with its skeleton serving as the logo for the park both in real life and in films. Of all the T-Rexes in the franchise, none is more beloved than the first Rex from Jurassic Park. Dubbed "Rexy", this is the same T-Rex that fought the Indominus in Jurassic World and escaped into the wild at the end of Fallen Kingdom. Rexy will face new challenges in Dominion and is already confirmed to have an extended sequence set at a drive-in theater during the film.

Velociraptor

After the T-Rex, the other most iconic dinosaur in the Jurassic franchise is undoubtedly the Velociraptor. Jurassic World introduced audiences to a specific raptor named Blue, who was trained from birth by Chris Pratt's Owen Grady. At the end of Fallen Kingdom, Blue escaped into the wild alongside a horde of other prehistoric beasts, and Dominion will continue to follow her journey and develop her relationship with Owen.

Gallimimus

One of the most memorable dinosaurs from the original Jurassic Park was the Gallimimus, a bird-like creature that traveled in large herds. In Jurassic Park, a big group of Gallimimus is seen stampeding across a meadow on the island, trying in vain to avoid an attack from the recently freed T-Rex. The Gallimimus was among the dinosaurs confirmed to have been saved in Fallen Kingdom prior to Jurassic World's destruction and was able to escape onto the mainland. Although its numbers have been reduced, it's possible that Jurassic World: Dominion will see the Gallimimus make a comeback as a species.

Pteranodon

Although not a dinosaur, pterosaurs like the Pteranodon have a significant place in the Jurassic franchise. After being briefly glimpsed in The Lost World: Jurassic Park, the creatures played a huge role as one of the main antagonistic "dinos" in Jurassic Park III. In fact, the Pteranodon is one of the only genetically bred creatures from Jurassic Park to actually make it to the mainland years before Fallen Kingdom, making them ideally suited to succeed in their new, non-island habitat.

Compsognathus

One of the more threatening dinosaurs to inhabit the volcanic Isla Nublar, Isla Sorna, and now the mainland is the Compsognathus, or "Compy" for short. These little dinos might only be the size of a chicken, but when they attack in a swarm, they can be deadly. The beginning of The Lost World showed a group of Compies attacking a little girl on Isla Sorna, and there's no telling what trouble these tiny terrors will cause on the mainland.

Ankylosaurus

These peaceful but heavily armored plant-eaters have made appearances in multiple Jurassic films before, and have proven themselves to be more than capable of defending themselves. With Ankylosaurus loose in the modern world, nothing will be safe, be it an encroaching predator or an unaware vehicle.

Mosasaurus

One of the breakout prehistoric stars of Jurassic World, the Mosasaurus has quickly become one of the most iconic animals in the entire franchise, even getting to kill the mutant Indominus Rex. It also holds the distinction of being the first of the park's residents to break free and leave the island behind. The Mosasaurus is presumably still cruising the oceans in Dominion and is likely to remain an unpredictable force of nature within the sequel.

Allosaurus

The carnivorous Allosaurus made its debut in Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, where at least five examples of the species were shown to have made it back to the mainland alive. One of these surviving Allosaurus was purchased in the film's dinosaur auction, and another was observed doing battle with a stubborn Nasutoceratops in the short film Battle at Big Rock.

Nasutoceratops

The Nasutoceratops, a relative of the more famous three-horned Triceratops, made its Jurassic World debut in the short film Battle at Big Rock, where it battled an Allosaurus. The creature is confirmed to return in Jurassic World: Dominion.

New Dinosaurs In Jurassic World: Dominion

In addition to returning favorites, there are several new dinosaurs that have been confirmed to appear in Dominion. These include the Lystrosaurus (a small beaked dinosaur) and the Atrociraptor (a 6.6-foot relative of the Velociraptor). The film is also set to begin with a 65-million-year flashback sequence that will include several other dinosaurs, including Dreadnoughtus, Iguanodon, Moros, Oviraptor, the pterosaur Quetzalcoatlus, and the massive Giganotosaurus, which is seen killing the T-Rex that eventually supplies its DNA to the cloned Rexy.

Rumored Dinosaurs In Jurassic World: Dominion

Multiple dinosaur names have come up in rumors regarding the prehistoric cast of the film. The iconic Dilophosaurus that killed Dennis Nedry in the original Jurassic Park has long been rumored to return and even made a cameo via a hologram in Jurassic World. Another Jurassic Park favorite is the Triceratops, which made a huge impression in 1993. The creature has since appeared in several other films but remains unconfirmed for the final entry in the franchise. Lastly, there's the most infamous predator from any Jurassic film: the Spinosaurus. Although referenced in Jurassic World with a massive skeleton, the idea of bringing the Spinosaurus back as a surprise dinosaur in Jurassic World: Dominion is one that many fans want to happen, and some rumors suggest that the creators behind the film might share that opinion.

Source: https://screenrant.com/

“Jurassic World: Dominion”: The 8 Biggest Movie Questions Answered

Saturday, July 24, 2021

It will take some time due to the coronavirus, but there will come a time when we can enjoy Jurassic World: Dominion in cinemas. The movie promises to be the biggest in the franchise to date.

Once again directed by Colin Trevorrow, he offers us a special project with heroes from the first and second trilogy. Today we tell you everything you need to know about the movie.

1. Where is this trailer?
This will be one of the questions you may still have. for which we do not have a direct answer. Universal has yet to announce a release date for the first trailer. However, there was an IMAX preview of several minutes, which showed that the film began 65 million years ago.

2. When playing Jurassic World: Dominion Wonders?
The film begins with an introduction set in the Cretaceous period, but quickly dives into the present: Jurassic World: Dominion in 2022.

3. Who’s in it Jurassic World: Dominion?
Jurassic World: Dominion as a culmination of Jurassic World Trilogy and brings the cast Scientist Along with the Jurassic Park films. The protagonists are again Chris Pratt and Bryce Dallas Howard, but they are joined by Laura Dern, Sam Neal and Jeff Goldblum.

4. What is the plot Jurassic World: Dominion?
Dinosaurs now roam freely across continental America. We see two stories unfold: one about “old” acquaintances and one about “new” heroes. As a result, it instantly becomes a thriller that takes place all over the world. For example, they registered in the UK, British Columbia and Malta.

5. What are dinosaurs Jurassic World: Dominion?
Confirmed dinosaurs in the movie are as follows: Allosaurus, Ankylosaurus, Atrociraptor, Compsognathus, Dreadnoughtus, Gallimimus, Giganotosaurus, Iguanodon, Lystrosaurus, Moros, Mosasaurus, Nasutoceratops, Oviraptorosaur, Quetzalcoaptros,.

6. Is there any hybrid in it Jurassic World: Dominion?
Indominus Rex and Indoraptor were the two hybrid dinosaurs we’ve seen so far. But this, according to Trevorrow, is not the trend that will continue Jurassic World: Dominion. We only see “real” dinosaurs.

7. Is Jurassic World: Dominion The last movie in the franchise?
No, definitely not. It’s the culmination of a six-part story, but – as we know thanks to one of the producers – it’s also making a new movie. This means that we may expect more in the coming years JurassicMovies to enjoy.

8. When Jurassic World: Dominion To see in the cinema?
The movie is supposed to hit theaters in June 2022. Universal Pictures doesn’t want a hybrid version, so just assume the movie will hit cinemas.

Source: https://dividendwealth.co.uk/

Pterosaurs were Capable of Flapping Flight during Earliest Phases of Life, Study Suggests

Saturday, July 24, 2021

Flock of Cretaceous-period pterosaurs Pterodaustro guinazui. Image credit: Mark Witton.

The humerus bones of the newly-hatched pterosaurs were stronger than those of adults pterosaurs, indicating that they would have been strong enough for flight, according to new research led by Dr. Darren Naish, a paleontologist in the School of Biological Sciences at the University of Southampton.

“There have been several debates about whether juvenile pterosaurs could fly, but this is the first time it’s been studied through a more biomechanical point of view,” said senior author Dr. Elizabeth Martin-Silverstone, a paleontologist in the School of Earth Sciences at the University of Bristol.

“It’s exciting to discover that even though their wings may have been small, they were built in a way that made them strong enough to fly.”

In the study, Dr. Naish, Dr. Martin-Silverstone and their colleague, Dr. Mark Witton from the School of the Environment, Geography and Geosciences at the University of Portsmouth, modeled the flying abilities of newly-hatched pterosaurs.

They used previously obtained wing measurements from four established hatchling and embryo fossils from two species of Cretaceous-period pterosaurs: Pterodaustro guinazui and Sinopterus dongi.

The paleontologists also compared these wing measurements with those of adults from the same species and compared the strength of the humerus bone, which forms part of the wing, of three hatchlings with those of 22 adult pterosaurs.

They found that hatchling humerus bones were stronger than those of many adult pterosaurs, indicating that they would have been strong enough for flight.

“We found that these tiny animals — with 25 cm (10 inches) wingspans and bodies that could neatly fit in your hand — were very strong, capable fliers,” Dr. Witton said.

“Their bones were strong enough to sustain flapping and take-off, and their wings were ideally shaped for powered — as opposed to gliding — flight.”

“However, they would not have flown exactly like their parents simply because they were so much smaller: flight capabilities are strongly influenced by size and mass, and so pterosaur hatchlings, being hundreds of times smaller than their parents, were likely slower, more agile fliers than the wide-ranging, but less manoeuvrable adults.”

The researchers also found that while hatchlings had long, narrow wings suited to long-distance flight, their wings were shorter and broader than those of adult pterosaurs, with a larger wing area relative to hatchling mass and body size.

These wing dimensions may have made hatchlings less efficient than adult pterosaurs at long-distance travel, but may have resulted in them being more agile fliers, enabling them to suddenly change direction and speed.

“The agile flying style of hatchling pterosaurs may have enabled them to rapidly escape predators and made them better suited to chasing nimbler prey and flying amongst dense vegetation than adult pterosaurs,” the scientists said.

The study was published in the journal Scientific Reports.

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D. Naish et al. 2021. Powered flight in hatchling pterosaurs: evidence from wing form and bone strength. Sci Rep 11, 13130; doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-92499-z

Source: www.sci-news.com/

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