nandi's blog

Jurassic World: Dominion's Dinosaurs Will Have Feathers

Friday, June 11, 2021

Jurassic World: Dominion director Colin Trevorrow confirms the movie will include more scientifically-accurate dinosaurs with feathers.

Jurassic World: Dominion director Colin Trevorrow confirmed the movie will include more scientifically-accurate dinosaurs with feathers.

"We have consultants. Steve Brusatte, who is an amazing paleontologist, started with us on this movie and then we have Jack Horner who’s been with us all the other movies," said Trevorrow, speaking to SlashFilm about Dominon's extended theatrical preview. "Steve specifically wrote a book that came out a couple years ago that’s become the new standard for paleontology. He knew we were going to do feathers in the movie -- we hadn’t done that before. And so I went up to Edinburgh where he is and sat with him and was like, 'Look man, we’re going to go for it.' There are dinosaurs with feathers, not just in the short but in the movie as well, and so we wanted to get it exactly right."

One of Dominion's feathered dinosaurs can be glimpsed in a photo that's seemingly taken from a sequence set 65 million years in the past, showing a world ruled by dinosaurs. Footage from that sequence will be featured in the movie's extended five-minute preview, which will screen with IMAX showings of F9: The Fast Saga.

In the first Jurassic World film, Dr. Henry Wu explained why the franchise's dinosaurs have always been scientifically inaccurate, noting they were created by filling in their genetic gaps with DNA from frogs. "We also don’t have the excuse of frog DNA being put into the genome that we have in all the movies to say, 'Well no here’s why they’re not paleontology accurate,'" said Trevorrow, explaining why the dinosaurs from Dominion's prehistorical sequence will finally buck that trend. "We had to get it right. And so we took the challenge and we ran with it."

Moreover, Trevorrow previously described Dominion as being a celebration of the whole franchise, including both the Jurassic Park and Jurassic World films. "To me, [Dominion] is a culmination of one story that's been told," he said. "When you got to the end of the Jurassic Park trilogy, it may not have been as clear in what the complete story of those three movies was because they were a bit more episodic in the way that they were approached. But this trilogy is not that way. It's very much a serialized story."

Directed by Colin Trevorrow, Jurassic World: Dominion stars Chris Pratt, Bryce Dallas Howard, Sam Neill, Laura Dern, Jeff Goldblum, Jake Johnson, Justice Smith, Daniella Pineda, Omar Sy, Isabelle Sermon and B.D. Wong. The film arrives in theaters on June 10, 2022.

Source: SlashFilm / www.cbr.com/

Jurassic World Makes John Hammond's Book Death A Conspiracy Theory In Canon

Wednesday, June 9, 2021

Steven Spielberg's Jurassic Park didn't include John Hammond's death from the book, but Jurassic World brings it back as a conspiracy theory.

Jurassic World acknowledges John Hammond's death from the Jurassic Park book in a way that frames it as a conspiracy theory. Needless to say, there's a lot from Steven Spielberg's Jurassic Park film that doesn't mesh with Michael Crichton's novel. It's a tale as old as time; movie and TV adaptations of famed books don't always follow the plot points to the letter, and instead either trim, omit, or rework details in order to fit within the scope of the film. Jurassic Park is no exception.

Various elements from the Jurassic Park book never made it onto the big screen, but many were retooled into later films. For example, the opening sequence with the Bowman family being attacked instead opened up Jurassic Park's movie sequel, The Lost World; even Dr. Ian Malcolm is presumed dead in the original book, but thanks to Crichton choosing to write a sequel, Malcolm returned to the fold alive and (mostly) well. While Malcolm certainly came back for The Lost World, so did Hammond - despite him being killed off in the Jurassic Park book.

In the novel, John Hammond dies after falling down a hill, breaking his ankle, and being eaten alive by a pack of Compies. This, of course, never happened in the Jurassic Park and Jurassic World film canon; Hammond instead went on to live out his life in comfort, dying of natural causes sometime after the events of The Lost World. The thing is, some people in Jurassic World's universe still believe Hammond died on Isla Nublar. In Camp Cretaceous season 3, Yaz tells Darius that Jurassic Park is haunted and legend says "the original park owner broke his ankle and then was eaten alive by Compies."

All one needs to do is watch the end of Jurassic Park to see that Hammond did indeed survived the Isla Nublar incident in 1993. And although The Lost World may not be official canon in Jurassic World's timeline, various sources of information - tie-in and marketing material, as well as dialogue from the Jurassic World film itself - all suggest Hammond still survived, if the final scenes of Jurassic Park weren't enough. But a kid like Yaz may not be familiar with the intricacies of what happened all those years before - although a "dino-nerd" like Darius does, and he knows Hammond died naturally years later.

Sadly, Hammond actor Richard Attenborough died at age 90 in 2014, but that doesn't mean Hammond's won't come up again in the forthcoming Jurassic World: Dominion. As the final installment in the Jurassic World trilogy and presumably the Jurassic Park franchise as a whole, which is also bringing back Malcolm, Dr. Alan Grant. and Dr. Ellie Sattler, there's plenty of opportunity to discuss the past and what happened with Hammond and the original park. Perhaps the final years of his life will be brought up as well.

Source: https://screenrant.com/

Australotitan cooperensis: New Titanosaur Species Uncovered in Australia

Wednesday, June 9, 2021

Life reconstruction of Australotitan cooperensis. Image credit: Vladislav Konstantinov / Scott Hocknull.

The newly-discovered species of titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur, named Australotitan cooperensis, is the largest species of dinosaur ever found in Australia.

Australotitan cooperensis lived during the Cretaceous period, approximately 92-96 million years ago.

The ancient giant belongs to Titanosauria, a diverse group of sauropod (long-necked plant-eating) dinosaurs.

The group includes species ranging from the largest known terrestrial vertebrates to ‘dwarfs’ no bigger than elephants.

Australotitan cooperensis was between 25-30 m (82-98 feet) long, 5 and 6.5 m (16.4-21.3 feet) high, and had a mass between 23 and 74 tons.

Australotitan cooperensis adds to the growing list of uniquely Australian dinosaur species discovered in Outback Queensland, and just as importantly showcases a totally new area for dinosaur discovery in Australia,” said Dr. Scott Hocknull, a researcher at the Queensland Museum and the University of Melbourne.

The fossilized skeleton of the new dinosaur was discovered in 2005 in the southern-central Winton Formation of the Eromanga Basin, Australia.

“In the early 2000s, Australia was at the beginning of a dinosaur-rush, with a number of significant new species of dinosaurs and megafauna being discovered in the past 20 years,” said Dr. Jim Thompson, CEO of Queensland Museum Network.

“Australia is one of the last frontiers for dinosaur discovery and Queensland is quickly cementing itself as the paleo-capital of the nation — there is still plenty more to discover.”

The paleontologists found that Australotitan cooperensis was closely related to three other Australian sauropods that lived during the Cretaceous period.

“We compared the three species found to the north, near Winton, to our new Eromanga giant and it looks like Australia’s largest dinosaurs were all part of one big happy family,” Dr. Hocknull said.

“We found that Australotitan cooperensis was the largest in the family, followed by Wintonotitan wattsi with big hips and long legs, whilst the two smaller sauropods, Diamantinasaurus matildae and Savannasaurus elliottorum were shorter in stature and heavily-set.”

The discovery is reported in a paper in the journal Peer J.

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S.A. Hocknull et al. 2021. A new giant sauropod, Australotitan cooperensis gen. et sp. nov., from the mid-Cretaceous of Australia. PeerJ 9: e11317; doi: 10.7717/peerj.11317

Source: www.sci-news.com/

Almost Half Of Americans Think Dinosaurs ‘Definitely’ Still Exist, Poll Finds

Monday, June 7, 2021

A recent poll has found that a lot of Americans need to do some reading up on their knowledge of dinosaurs.

The poll, which surveyed more than 2,000 adult respondents, found that 46% said they believed that dinosaurs still existed in remote areas of the world.

A further 22% said that they thought this could be a possibility, while only 33% correctly answered that dinosaurs do not exist in modern day at all, as they have been extinct for millions of years. Worryingly, only 33% said there was no chance of dinosaurs currently existing.

People weren’t great with their timelines, either. 23% of respondents thought dinosaurs went extinct 2,000 years ago, while 21% thought it was 100 years ago. I mean, if that were the case, dinosaurs would have definitely been used in the First World War.

A further 18% responded that they went extinct 10,000 years ago, and 13% said three million years ago. 15% thought it was none of the answers provided.

The icing on the unknowledgeable cake was that 1,200 people genuinely thought there was a dinosaur named ‘doyouthinktheysarus’.

The survey was conducted by Boat Rocker Studios as promotion for its animated series about dinosaurs, Dino Ranch. It released the findings on June 1, which just so happened to be International Dinosaur Day.

Apparently the survey was actually created for preschool children, Fox News reports, but the studio company thought adults could benefit from taking part too.

While it’s evident that American adults need to sharpen up on their dinosaur facts, only 41% admitted that they thought their child knew more about dinosaurs than they did.

Speaking of children’s enhanced knowledge of dinosaurs, Matt Fernandes, creator of Dino Ranch, said, as per StudyFinds, ‘It’s brilliant to see that shows like Dino Ranch are helping to drive a strong love of dinosaurs in kids’ today, and these magnificent creatures still have an audience.’

Maybe they should make an adult-friendly version of the animated show too…

Source: www.unilad.co.uk/

Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous Reveals Its Best Friendship In a Deadly Arc

Saturday, June 5, 2021

Season 3 of Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous reveals the show's best friendship, which unfolds in a deadly arc thanks to the poisonous Scorpios Rex.

WARNING: The following contains spoilers for the third season of Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous, now streaming on Netflix.

At the heart of Netflix's Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous is friendship. Fans saw it with Darius and his deceased dad, and that's now spread to Darius and Ben bonding as they face mortality together on Isla Nublar. They've been through thick and thin, and while a lot of the series focused on them, Season 3 confirms the best friendship is actually between Yaz and Sammy.

It's been building for some time, as early on Sammy was trying hard to be Yaz's friend. That quickly switched to Sammy and Kenji flirting, but she still couldn't stay away from Yaz, despite their different personalities, with Yaz being sporty and intense while Sammy's optimistic and goofy.

They've come a long way from the revelation in Season 1 that Sammy was a spy sent to garner intel to sell to rivals of InGen to pull her family out of debt, but no one expected the season to go this way when Sammy is poisoned by the Scorpios Rex in an attack. To make it worse, Bumpy has fled, so their dino-protection is gone.

However, Brooklynn recalls seeing a video at Dr. Wu's lab where he was poisoned too in an ambush. She remembers where they have a cure, so Yaz takes that info and heads out. She doesn't want anyone to slow her down, but what she doesn't tell the rest is she can't afford to lose Sammy, who's like her sister.

She wouldn't admit it, but as her memories indicate, Sammy's selfless attitude has rubbed off on Yaz. She was afraid to show a vulnerable side, but now Yaz is finally ready. After almost losing Ben too, she can't handle another hit like this so using her track skills, speed, agility and flexibility, she evades raptors and other beasts as she slips in and out the lab.

She's a veritable super-soldier, jumping over babbling brooks and whatnot, which leads to her ankle getting injured. It culminates in a race with the Scorpios, but thanks to Ben and Darius distracting it with an explosion, she gets back in time to save her friend. It's a horrific moment, as it seems like Sammy dies, but thankfully, she comes to and realizes Yaz really does love her. More so, as they embrace this wholesome bond, it proves Yaz won't ever give up on Sammy, which is what Darius did when all evidence pointed to Ben being dead.

Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous stars Paul-Mikél Williams as Darius, Jenna Ortega as Brooklynn, Ryan Potter as Kenji, Raini Rodriguez as Sammy, Sean Giambrone as Ben and Kausar Mohammed as Yaz. Season 3 is now streaming on Netflix.

Source: www.cbr.com/

New Study Provides Insights into Diet of Extinct Little Bush Moa

Saturday, June 5, 2021

Moa browsed trees and shrubs within the forest understorey. Image credit: Heinrich Harder.

Paleontologists have examined 6,800- to 4,600-year-old coprolites attributed to the little bush moa (Anomalopteryx didiformis). The results support the current hypothesis that this moa species browsed trees and shrubs within the forest understorey, and provide new evidence that ferns were also an important part of its diet.

Most of what scientists currently know about the diets of New Zealand’s extinct moa is heavily biased towards just three species (Dinornis robustusMegalapteryx didinus and Pachyornis elephantopus), which represent about 90% of all identified coprolites and gizzard content samples. By comparison, the diets of the other six moa species are poorly known.

Moa coprolites and gizzard contents can be dissected and analyzed under the microscope or using DNA identification techniques to decipher what the birds ate. The contents can also be screened to see what seeds the birds may have dispersed.

A rare deposit of 6,800- to 4,600-year-old moa coprolites was recently discovered in Fiordland National Park in the southwest corner of the South Island of New Zealand.

“This rock shelter deposit is scientifically very important as it is the southernmost site from which moa coprolites have been recovered, with the longest documented timespan of coprolite accumulation (2,200 years) preserved within a sediment horizon in a single place,” said Dr. Jamie Wood, a researcher with Manaaki Whenua — Landcare Research.

“Until now, only five little bush moa coprolites have previously been identified, all from central Otago.”

Using DNA analysis and known moa species distributions, the scientists attributed the deposit to the little bush moa, a small-to medium-sized species of moa that lived in lowland closed-canopy forests throughout New Zealand.

Pollen and plant DNA from the coprolites, as well as associated plant macrofossils, show that the deposit spans a period when the forest canopy was transitioning from conifers (dominated by miro, matai, totara and mountain toatoa from the Podocarpaceae family) to silver beech (Lophozonia menziesii) dominance about 6,800 to 4,600 years ago.

DNA, pollen and leaf cuticle fragments of the red mistletoe (Peraxilla tetrapetala), a species usually associated with silver beech, were also found in the little bush moa coprolites.

The nutritious leaves of this mistletoe are highly palatable and today are also sought out by the introduced possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) and browsing mammals such as deer.

The little bush moa coprolites contained very few seeds compared with other analysed moa coprolites.

“This observation was interesting because it contrasts with what we know about other moa species which played an important role dispersing tiny seeds (less than 3 mm) of many plant species in their droppings,” said Dr. Janet Wilmshurst, a researcher from Manaaki Whenua — Landcare Research and the University of Auckland.

“The near absence of seeds in the little bush moa coprolites indicates they were not important seed dispersers, and that they may have been targeting the largest conifer seeds which get totally ground up in their muscular gizzards and destroyed rather than dispersed.”

The study also provided striking new evidence that the foliage of ground ferns were an important part of their diet.

“While little bush moa may not have been great seed dispersers, based on our finding of ground fern DNA, frond cuticle remains and high spore counts, they may have played a previously unrecognised role as dispersers of ground fern spores throughout New Zealand forests,” Dr. Wood said.

The study was published in the journal Quaternary Science Reviews.

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Jamie R. Wood et al. 2021. Mid-Holocene coprolites from southern New Zealand provide new insights into the diet and ecology of the extinct little bush moa (Anomalopteryx didiformis). Quaternary Science Reviews 263: 106992; doi: 10.1016/j.quascirev.2021.106992

Source: www.sci-news.com/

Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous Just Created Its Own Civil War

Thursday, June 3, 2021

Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous just had its own civil war as the kids lost the plot on the island, with humans and dinos threatening them.

WARNING: The following contains spoilers for the third season of Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous, now streaming on Netflix.

In Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous, there have been minor fallouts between the teens before but nothing too damaging to their relationships. After all, they're stronger and safer together, and better equipped to survive Isla Nublar by having each other's backs. However, in the dangerous third season, a massive rift opens up, creating a civil war that'll have dire repercussions moving forward.

It happens between Kenji and Darius in the final episode, "Stay on Mission," with the former being furious that the team was willing to sacrifice Brooklynn's life to recover crucial data. Knowing that Dr. Wu's laptop had intel that could expose his sinister experiments, they had embarked on a heist to steal the computer and once they escaped with the information, they planned to alert the relevant authorities.

However, Wu's mercenaries were more brutal than first assumed and while they did steal the laptop, Brooklynn ended up being left behind. Ironically, she was the one who urged them to abandon her for the greater good. When they arranged for a swap, Kenji was the first one to be adamant that Brooklynn's life came before bringing Wu's empire down.

They set up a scam to exchange the machine, and while it got destroyed, they managed to copy data onto a flash drive. It culminated with them rescuing Brooklynn and getting help from their surroundings, dinos included, to board a boat and leave the island. But rather than celebrate their victory, Kenji was livid with Darius. He had a dark moment, telling Darius they were no longer friends, and he clearly doesn't hold the camp in the same light anymore.

Previously, Kenji almost lost Sammy due to poisoning from the Scorpios Rex, and he also has abandonment issues with his family, so yet another brush with Brooklynn's mortality drove him over the edge. Given that Darius was training him as a leader, Kenji may well try to take over, assert dominance or rebel against the others.

 

To him, Darius can't protect the crew anymore and after learning so much from everyone else, Kenji wants to steer the ship. He could even try to sway Sammy to his side, as she has a crush on him and would understand the sanctity of life, along with Ben, who was abandoned in Season 1 when they thought he died.

Ultimately, Kenji doesn't care if Darius was listening to Brooklynn; he just wants to save them but despite his good intentions, he's not leadership material. Kenji isn't as smart, brave or physical as the others and as he warns Darius, it's clear that he -- and whoever follows him en route to Costa Rica -- will complicate the mission.

Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous stars Paul-Mikél Williams as Darius, Jenna Ortega as Brooklynn, Ryan Potter as Kenji, Raini Rodriguez as Sammy, Sean Giambrone as Ben and Kausar Mohammed as Yaz. Season 3 is available to stream on Netflix.

Source: www.cbr.com/

How Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous Sets Up Season 4

Thursday, June 3, 2021

Let's look at how the sinister threats of dinos and humans on Isla Nublar set up a fourth season for Netflix's Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous.

WARNING: The following contains spoilers for the third season of Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous, now streaming on Netflix.

Season 3 of Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous definitely proves to be the most harrowing yet with the Scorpios Rex on the loose. In addition to velociraptors and other dino threats, it gets even scarier when Dr. Wu and his mercenaries come to Isla Nublar to get his laptop so he can carry out his plans in Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom.

However, while Darius' crew of teens manage to evade all these devilish figures, there are more problems on the horizon for a fourth season.

The Stowaway Dinosaur

The kids are able to get a USB with the data and escape the island, as well as Wu's mercenaries. It is assumed they'll die but on their boat, all seems well as they plan to get to Costa Rica. Once they're on land, they'll expose the intel but the season ends with a dino inside a room below deck, pounding the door to break out.

It could be a raptor given the power and strength of the banging, as well as its size, but it may even be a younger Scorpios Rex. This could be a huge problem, as Wu's creation is able to asexually reproduce, something that stunned even him. This move would make sense, seeing as it's the show's deadliest dino yet and deserves to be in another season. Either way, this mysterious dino is sure to throw them off course as all hell breaks loose, especially since they left Bumpy at the park.

Finding Isla Sorna

If they veer off course, there's a good chance they could end up shipwrecked at Site B, Isla Sorna -- the other island seen in Jurassic Park III. There are many dangers there too, and a new batch of raptors or T-Rexes could come hunting the teens. It could become a feeding ground if a Scorpios is let loose there, which could lead to new, nastier dino-hunters scouring the landscape.

This option is believable, since the ship's hull is damaged and Kenji's piloting skills aren't that great. It's also unpredictable terrain where Darius' team might even encounter another Spinosaurus. It's also unknown if Wu, InGen and the Masrani Global Group ran more dino experiments there, but what's for certain is there'll be peril lurking nearby.

Kenji's Wrath

While the teens are stronger together, one further complication could arise in the form of Kenji's feud with Darius. He hates how Darius and the others left Brooklynn behind and used her as a pawn to get Wu's data, so he's poised to be a problem. There could be trust issues and maybe even a rebellion if he can sway people to his side.

Kenji did learn a lot from Darius about being a leader, and seeing as Sammy has a crush on him and almost died, she may side with him. Ben also had a brush with mortality, so he too could be tempted to follow a new captain, leaving Darius, Yaz and Brooklynn torn. Hopefully it doesn't get too bad, because they'll have enough issues as it is trying to survive all these alpha predators.

Wu's Sinister Mission

Wu might discover his data was stolen and with so many resources at his disposal, he could probably track the kids down. He knows them all too well after fighting on Site A, so he could send more mercs and choppers after them to ensure they don't expose his experiments. Given that Jurassic World: Dominion has dinos in the wild, he'll want to absolve himself of all blame as soon as he can.

This may also see a glimmer of hope arise, with aid visiting both islands once more, maybe even including Chris Pratt's Owen and Bryce Dallas Howard's Claire. But they can't be late on this rescue mission because Wu already has a head start. Plus, his thugs want proper revenge on the teens, who were able to dupe them in their first encounter in Season 3 by using dinos to kill the attackers at key moments.

Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous stars Paul-Mikél Williams as Darius, Jenna Ortega as Brooklynn, Ryan Potter as Kenji, Raini Rodriguez as Sammy, Sean Giambrone as Ben and Kausar Mohammed as Yaz. Season 3 is now streaming on Netflix.

Source: www.cbr.com/

Juvenile Tyrannosaurs Had Powerful Bite, New Study Shows

Thursday, June 3, 2021

A juvenile Tyrannosaurus rex. Image credit: PaleoEquii / CC BY-SA 4.0.

In a paper published in the journal PeerJ, paleontologists present bite force estimates for a juvenile Tyrannosaurus rex based on mechanical tests designed to replicate its bite marks.

For the study, University of Wisconsin Oshkosh’s Professor Joseph Peterson and colleagues made a replica of the scimitar-shaped tooth of a young Tyrannosaurus rex using a dental-grade cobalt chromium alloy.

They then mounted the metal tooth in a mechanical testing frame and pushed it slowly, at a millimeter per second, into a fresh-frozen and thawed humerus of a cow.

Forces required to replicate punctures were recorded and puncture dimensions were measured.

“What we did, an actualistic study, is to say, Let’s actually stab the thing with a tooth and see what it does,” Professor Peterson said.

“What we are finding is that our estimates are slightly different than other models, but they are within a close enough range — we are on the same page.”

The paleontologists determined that juvenile Tyrannosaurus rexes could have exerted up to 5,641 newtons of force, somewhere between the jaw forces exerted by a hyena and a crocodile.

Compare that to the bite force of an adult Tyrannosaurus rex — about 35,000 newtons — or to the puny biting power of humans: 300 newtons.

Previous bite force estimates for juvenile Tyrannosaurus rexes — based on reconstruction of the jaw muscles or from mathematically scaling down the bite force of adult Tyrannosaurus rexes — were considerably less, about 4,000 newtons.

“If you are up to almost 6,000 newtons of bite force, that places them in a slightly different weight class,” Dr. Tseng said.

“By really refining our estimates of juvenile bite force, we can more succinctly place them in a part of the food web and think about how they may have played the role of a different kind of predator from their larger, adult parents.”

The study revealed that juvenile Tyrannosaurus rexes, while not yet able to crush bones like their 30- or 40-year-old parents, were developing their biting techniques and strengthening their jaw muscles to be able do so once their adult teeth came in.

“This actually gives us a little bit of a metric to help us gauge how quickly the bite force is changing from juvenile to adulthood, and something to compare with how the body is changing during that same period of time,” Professor Peterson said.

“Are they already crushing bone? No, but they are puncturing it. It allows us to get a better idea of how they are feeding, what they are eating.”

“It is just adding more to that full picture of how animals like tyrannosaurs lived and grew and the roles that they played in that ecosystem.”

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J.E. Peterson et al. 2021. Bite force estimates in juvenile Tyrannosaurus rex based on simulated puncture marks. PeerJ 9: e11450; doi: 10.7717/peerj.11450

Source: www.sci-news.com/

Jurassic Park: The Dinosaurs Are All Fake - Theory Explained

Thursday, June 3, 2021

A compelling fan theory argues that Jurassic Park's dinosaurs aren't clones but genetically engineered mashups meant to fool the general public.

Jurassic Park fan theory postulates that all of the dinosaurs in the blockbuster film saga are fake. Of course, Jurassic Park is fiction and cloned dinosaurs don't exist in the real world, but the fan theory put forth in 2013 by Redditor Browmra04 argues that in-universe, Jurassic Park's prehistoric creations weren't clones made from dinosaur DNA but amalgamations made from different animals that were built to resemble what people think dinosaurs look like.

The pseudo-science in Steven Spielberg's Jurassic Park and Michael Crichton's original novel states that InGen cloned dinosaurs from DNA harvested from mosquitoes that were preserved in amber. The ancient pests drank dino blood and InGen took the dino DNA from the insects, filling in the gaps in the genetic code with amphibian DNA to create Jurassic Park's original 15 dinosaurs species. Ever since the film was released, scientists have argued how Jurassic Park is filled with dinosaur mistakes. First, any DNA in a mosquito would have degraded over 65 million years. There would also have been multiple DNA samples mixed from multiple dinosaurs a mosquito drank from, so the odds of finding a mosquito carrying the DNA of a single species of dinosaur are staggering. In the real world, genetically engineering dinosaurs using InGen's methods isn't possible, but the Jurassic Park fan theory makes a case that InGen also knew it couldn't be done and that John Hammond's (Richard Attenborough) explanation for how he made dinosaurs was an elaborate cover story.

According to the fan theory, what InGen actually did in Jurassic Park was genetically engineer animals from reptile, mammal, and avian DNA to create what most people believe are what dinosaurs look like. For instance, science now knows that many real dinosaurs had feathers, a velociraptor was the size of a chimpanzee, and a dilophosaurus doesn't spit acid. Therefore, the dinosaurs of Jurassic Park aren't actually clones but a series of genetic experiments, and the dinosaur theme park itself was a way for John Hammond to bilk the public and profit from showing the world "real dinosaurs". The theory goes on to suggest that Hammond hiring Dr. Alan Grant (Sam Neill), Dr. Ellie Sattler (Laura Dern), and Dr. Ian Malcolm (Jeff Goldblum) was part of the ruse because the scientists weren't meant to sign off on the safety of Jurassic Park as they were led to believe. Rather, Hammond invited the scientists to fool them as to the veracity of InGen's "cloned dinos" story, because if these experts believed the dinosaurs were real, so would the public.

John Hammond's own speech to Ellie Sattler seems to back up the theory since the old man confessed he got his start showing the public flea circuses. Hammond is Jurassic Park's stand-in for P.T. Barnum and his career as a flim-flam man is part of his character. Jurassic Park would have been Hammond's ultimate deception since none of his dinosaurs are the clones of actual prehistoric beings he claims they are. Indeed, the "birthing lab' that's part of the Jurassic Park tour was just a show since The Lost World established that Isla Nublar's dinosaurs were actually grown in Site B, which was a different island altogether named Isla Sorna.

The theory is compelling and has a degree of merit to its logic. Even if InGen's "extracting DNA from mosquitos in amber" methods were 100% on the level, none of the dinosaurs were 100% genetically accurate anyway since they are all partially comprised of frog DNA, are all female, and were bred with a lysine deficiency. There was always chicanery involved in InGen's dinos. Jurassic Park may also have been damaging to the real-world public perception of dinosaurs since its popularity has defined what people think dinosaurs look and act like.

In a way, Jurassic World's hybrid dinosaurs may be the most 'honest' way the franchise has presented the prehistoric beasts. Jurassic World makes no bones that the Indominus Rex, Indoraptor, and Scorpios Rex never existed and are lab-bred monsters meant to terrify the public. But whether or not fans subscribe to the "Jurassic Park dinosaurs are all fake" theory, it shouldn't affect the overall enjoyment and affinity for dinosaurs instilled by the Jurassic franchise.

Source: https://screenrant.com/

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