Saturday, November 19, 2016

Centrosaurus apertus specimen ROM 767. Exhibit in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Centrosaurus is a genus of herbivorous ceratopsian dinosaurs from the late Cretaceous of Canada. Their remains have been found in the Dinosaur Park Formation, dating from 76.5 to 75.5 million years ago.

The massive bodies of Centrosaurus were borne by stocky limbs, although at up to 6 m (19.7 ft) they were not particularly large dinosaurs. Like other centrosaurines, Centrosaurus bore single large horns over their noses. These horns curved forwards or backwards depending on the specimen. Skull ornamentation was reduced as animals aged.

Centrosaurus is distinguished by having two large hornlets which hook forwards over the frill. A pair of small upwards directed horns is also found over the eyes. The frills of Centrosaurus were moderately long, with fairly large fenestrae and small hornlets along the outer edges.

Centrosaurus, which moved on all fours, had powerful front limbs that would have enhanced the animal’s speed and agility. A ball-and-socket joint in the neck would also have been useful in defense. it allowed Centrosaurus to turn its head swiftly and bring its sharp horn into play against large predators, such as Tyrannosaurus, that attacked from the rear.

Complete skulls arranged in ontogenetic order. Complete skulls arranged in ontogenetic order. Complete Centrosaurus skulls in lateral view arranged in ontogenetic order from the relatively least mature to the relatively most mature specimens, based on the reduced multistate tree. Skulls are not to scale. (A) TMP 1992.082.0001; (B) ROM 767; (C) TMP 1994.182.0001, (D) AMNH FARB 5351, (E) CMN 348; (F) UALVP 11735; (G) USNM 8897; (H) TMP 1997.085.0001; (I) CMN 8795; (J) YPM 2015. Images of TMP 1994.182.0001, AMNH FARB 5351, and CMN 8795 are reversed (mirrored). AMNH FARB 5351 and TMP 1997.085.0001 are represented here by casts. Division of Vertebrate Paleontology, YPM 2015. Courtesy of the Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. Joseph A. Frederickson​, Allison R. Tumarkin-Deratzian



The genus Centrosaurus gives its name to the Centrosaurinae subfamily. These were large North American horned dinosaurs characterized by their “prominent nasal horns, subordinate brow horns, short squamosals in a short frill, a tall, deep face relative to the chasmosaurines, and a projection into the rear of the nasal fenestra.” Its closest relatives appear to be Styracosaurus and Monoclonius. It so closely resembles the latter of these that some paleontologists have considered them to represent the same animal.

This cladogram follows the phylogenetic analysis performed by Ryan et al. (2016)