Saturday, April 1, 2017

Pentaceratops by Sergey Krasovskiy

Pentaceratops (“five-horned face”) is a genus of herbivorous ceratopsid dinosaur from the late Cretaceous Period of what is now North America.

Pentaceratops fossils were first discovered in 1921. The genus was named in 1923 when its type species Pentaceratops sternbergii was described. Pentaceratops lived around 76–73 million years ago, its remains having been mostly found in the Kirtland Formation in the San Juan Basin in New Mexico. About a dozen skulls and skeletons have been uncovered, so that most bones are known. One exceptionally large specimen later became its own genus, Titanoceratops, due to its more derived morphology closer to Triceratops and lack of unique characters shared with Pentaceratops proper, although the author that originally assigned it to Pentaceratops has decided to ignore this in subsequent publications.

Pentaceratops by SameerPrehistorica

Pentaceratops was about six meters (twenty feet) long, and has been estimated to have weighed around five tonnes. It had a short nose horn, two long brow horns, and long horns on the jugal bones. Its skull had a very long frill with triangular hornlets on the edge.

Pentaceratops is a large ceratopsid, Dodson estimated the body length at six meters, the skull length of AMNH 1624 at 2.3 meters while PMU R.200 has a length of 216 centimeters. The nose horn of Pentaceratops is small and pointing upwards and backwards. The brow horns are very long and curving strongly forwards. The somewhat upward tilted frill of Pentaceratops is considerably longer than that of Triceratops, with two large holes (parietal fenestrae) in it. It is rectangular, adorned by large triangular osteoderms: up to twelve episquamosals at the squamosal and three epiparietals at the parietal bone. These are largest at the rear corners of the frill, that are separated by a large U-shaped notch at the midline, a feature not recognized until 1981 when specimen UKVP 16100 was described. Within the notch the first epiparietals point forwards. The very thick jugal and the squamosal do not touch each other, a possible autapomorphy.

The torso of Pentaceratops is tall and wide. The rear dorsal vertebrae bear long spines from which perhaps ligaments ran to the front, to balance the high frill. The prepubis is long. The ischium is long and strongly curves forward. With the smaller specimens the thigh bone bows outwards.

The species was named and described by Henry Fairfield Osborn in 1923, as Pentaceratops sternbergii. The generic name means “five-horned face”, derived from the Greek penta (πέντα, meaning five), keras (κέρας, horn) and -ops (ὤψ, face), in reference to its two long epijugal bones, spikes which protrude out sidewards from under its eyes, in addition to the three more obvious horns as with Triceratops. Osborn obligingly gave it the specific name sternbergii honoring its discoverer as a veteran fossil hunter. The name had been suggested to Osborn by William Diller Matthew; the specific epithet served as a consolation to the almost bankrupt Sternberg whose 1923 fossils were initially not acquired by the museum that had to use its 1923/1924 budget to process the finds of the great Asian expeditions by Roy Chapman Andrews.

Specimen being airlifted with help from the New Mexico National Guard, 2015

The holotype was the skull discovered by Sternberg in 1922, specimen AMNH 6325. It was found in a layer of the Fruitland Formation, dating from the Campanian, about seventy-five million years old. The other three AMNH specimens were AMNH 1624, a smaller skull; AMNH 1622, a pair of brow horns; and AMNH 1625, a piece of skull frill.

Osborn originally assigned Pentaceratops to the Ceratopsia. Within this group Pentaceratops belonged to the Ceratopsinae or Chasmosaurinae. It appears to be most closely related to Utahceratops. Their clade was perhaps more derived than the earlier genus Chasmosaurus but more basal than Anchiceratops, the latter representing a line of which Triceratops was a member, which lived a few million years later, right at the end of the Cretaceous period, when all ceratopsians died out.

Nicholas Longrich/Yale University

Pentaceratops, like all ceratopsians, was an herbivore. During the Cretaceous, flowering plants were “geographically limited on the landscape”, and so it is likely that this dinosaur fed on the predominant plants of the era: ferns, cycads and conifers. It would have used its sharp ceratopsian beak to bite off the branches which then were shredded, leaves, needles and all, by the tooth batteries, providing a self-sharpening continuous cutting edge in both upper an lower jaws. Ultimately the plant material was digested by the large gut.

Pentaceratops lived around 76–73 million years ago, its remains having been mostly found in the Kirtland Formation in the San Juan Basin in New Mexico. Other dinosaurs which shared its habitat include Parasaurolophus cyrtocristatus, the pachycephalosaur Sphaerotholus, the armored dinosaur Nodocephalosaurus and the tyrannosauroid Bistahieversor.