Pachyrhinosaurus (meaning “thick-nosed lizard”) is an extinct genus of centrosaurine ceratopsid dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous period of North America. The first examples were discovered by Charles M. Sternberg in Alberta, Canada, in 1946, and named in 1950. Over a dozen partial skulls and a large assortment of other fossils from various species have been found in Alberta and Alaska. A great number were not available for study until the 1980s, resulting in a relatively recent increase of interest in the Pachyrhinosaurus. Three species have been identified. P. lakustai, from the Wapiti Formation, the bonebed horizon of which is roughly equivalent age to the upper Bearpaw and lower Horseshoe Canyon Formations, is known to have existed from about 73.5-72.5 million years ago. P. canadensis is younger, known only from the lower Horseshoe Canyon Formation, about 71.5-71 Ma ago. Fossils of the youngest species, P. perotorum, have been recovered from the Prince Creek Formation of Alaska, and date to 70-69 million years ago. The presence of three known species makes this genus the most speciose among the centrosaurines.
QUICK PACHYRHINOSAURUS FACTS
May have run as fast as 20 MPH
Lived in parts of Canada and Alaska
Its name means “thick nosed lizard”
3 species of this dinosaur have been discovered
Weighed as much as a Black Rhinoceros
Pachyrhinosaurus is a dinosaur which lived around 70 million years ago during the late Cretaceous Period. It was first discovered in the late 1940s by Charles M. Sternberg, son of famous paleontologists Charles H. Sternberg who found specimens in Alberta, Canada and Alaska, U.S. He also named the fossil, calling it Pachyrhinosaurus—a name which means “thick nosed lizard.”
Pachyrhinosaurus was an herbivore that was approximately 20 to 26 feet long, about 6 feet high and weighed around 2 to 3 tons. Like other dinosaur’s in this dinosaur order, the Pachyrhinosaurus had a large bony frill that came out of the back of its skull. However, what makes this dinosaur different from the other ones in it dinosaur classification is that instead of horns on its nose it had a large bony bump called a “boss.” It did have a pair of horns that grew out of the top of its frill and it may have had horns over its eyes.
Like other herbivores of this time, the Pachyrhinosaurus probably traveled in herds that kept it safe from predators. Paleontologists believe that some of these herds may have had hundreds or thousands of animals in it at one time. If this was indeed the case, then it would have made it quite difficult on predators. It is also likely that these dinosaurs also nested their eggs like modern birds and may have even taken care of them. This has been found to be the case in other dinosaur types such as the Protoceratops and the Styracosaurus.
Paleontologists believe this animal probably lived off of a diet that consisted mainly of palms and cycads and other tough plant material that it could tear off and crush with its beak. It also had cheek teeth that it could use to further masticate this tough plant material, making it easier to digest.
Anchiceratops is an genus of chasmosaurine ceratopsid dinosaur that lived approximately 72 to 71 million years ago during the latter part of the Cretaceous Period in what is now Alberta, Canada. Anchiceratops was a medium-sized, heavily built, ground-dwelling, quadrupedal herbivore that could grow up to an estimated 5 m (16.4 ft) long. Its skull featured two long brow horns and a short horn on the nose. The skull frill was elongated and rectangular, its edges adorned by coarse triangular projections. About a dozen skulls of the genus have been found.
Anchiceratops was a medium-sized ceratopsid. If specimen NMC 8547 is not taken into account, no very exact estimations of the body length of Anchiceratops can be given. Some popular science book state that it approached 20 feet (6 m) in length. In 2010 Gregory S. Paul, on the assumption that specimen NMC 8547 represented Anchiceratops, estimated its length at 4.3 metres, its weight at 1.2 tonnes.
The first remains of Anchiceratops were discovered along the Red Deer River in the Canadian province of Alberta in 1912 by an expedition led by Barnum Brown. The holotype, specimen AMNH 5251, is the back half of a skull, including the long frill, and two other partial skulls, specimens AMNH 5259 (the paratype) and AMNH 5273, were found at the same time, which are now stored in the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. A complete skull designated NMC 8535, was discovered by Charles M. Sternberg at Morrin in 1924, and was described as A. longirostris five years later, in 1929. but this species is widely considered a junior synonym of A. ornatus today. In total, at least ten incomplete skulls have been recovered. The skulls are different with respect to their proportions (e.g. size of the supraorbital horn cores, the dimensions of the frill) which had led researchers to conclude that the disparity is a result of interspecific differences or due to sexual dimorphism.
The most distinctive features of this dinosaur are in its unusual neck frill. The frill is moderately long and rectangular with small, oval fenestrae (openings). The edge of the frill is thick just behind the brow horns. On the back of the frill are six large epoccipitals (bony knobs around the frill) that were expanded into short, triangular, backward-pointing spikes. Also on the frill are two short spikes that curve up and out.
Anchiceratops had a short nasal horn, a very long nose, and two moderate-size brow horns. Its skeleton shows it had a very short tail, but otherwise it looked much like other ceratopsids.